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Melissa C. Kay, Cailee E. Welch and Tamara C. Valovich McLeod

Clinical Scenario:

Concussions are one of the most common sport-related injuries affecting athletes participating at all levels across a variety of sports. It has been reported that up to 3.8 million concussive events occur per year that are sports-related. One significant issue with identifying concussions is that a clinical diagnosis is based on the presence of signs and symptoms, which are self-reported by the patient. In the adolescent population, injury to the brain is possible with even the slightest insult, which can affect recovery and predispose them to subsequent concussions. Recent legislative efforts have included athlete education as a means to improve concussion reporting. More specifically, all 50 US states and the District of Columbia have implemented concussion legislation that includes some type of concussion education protocol, but there is still little evidence to suggest that enhanced knowledge levels result in behavior changes, including improved concussion-reporting practices. It is unclear what factors make an adolescent athlete more or less likely to report the symptoms of a concussion.

Focused Clinical Question:

What factors positively or negatively influence secondary school athletes’ likelihood of reporting symptoms of sport-related concussions?

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Paul M. Pedersen

championships) balances tradition and commercialism, how media coverage of sport-related concussions and chronic traumatic encephalopathy influences public perceptions, and how the media and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA, with signage for its organizational headquarters featured in the

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Katrina G. Ritter, Matthew J. Hussey and Tamara C. Valovich McLeod

Clinical Scenario It is estimated that approximately 1.1 to 1.9 million sport-related concussions occur in patients 18 years or younger in the United States annually. 1 Most adult patients who suffer from a concussion experience full relief from symptoms within 7 to 10 days of injury. 2 However

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Timothy A. Kulpa, Jamie Mansell, Anne Russ and Ryan Tierney

Clinical Scenario Concussions are a major public health concern, with an incidence of 1.6 to 4 million sport-related concussions (SRC) reported each year in the United States 1 – 3 ; although, a large number of SRC may still go unreported and/or undiagnosed. 4 Even with improvements in awareness

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Nicholas Hattrup, Hannah Gray, Mark Krumholtz and Tamara C. Valovich McLeod

10 d from sport-related concussion and diagnosed with a concussion according to international concussion in sport group criteria.  Exclusion criteria: (1) evidence of focal neurological deficit; (2) inability to exercise due to other injury such as orthopedic, cervical pathologies, diabetes, or other

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Cailee E. Welch Bacon, Gary W. Cohen, Melissa C. Kay, Dayna K. Tierney and Tamara C. Valovich McLeod

In the United States, between 1.1–1.9 million sport-related concussions occur annually among adolescents under the age of 18, and approximately 2,800–5,000 of these concussion cases result in hospitalization. 1 Therefore, proper assessment and management of this public health concern is crucial

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Matthew Booth, Jacob Powell, Patrick O. McKeon and Jennifer M. Medina McKeon

approach is supported by the research evidence. ▸ In certain professions, such as athletic training, where education in VRT is currently not standard, an interprofessional approach to treating concussed athletes is strongly recommended. Clinical Scenario Sport-related concussion is a complex

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Harsimran S. Baweja and Daniel J. Goble

. McCrea M , Barr WB , Guskiewicz K , et al . Standard regression-based methods for measuring recovery after sport-related concussion . J Int Neuropsychol Soc . 2005 ; 11 : 58 – 69 . PubMed ID: 15686609 doi:10.1017/S1355617705050083 15686609 10.1017/S1355617705050083 10. Murray N

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Sean H. Kerr, Tiffanye M. Vargas, Mimi Nakajima and Jim Becker

the largest number of concussions and show severe adverse consequences after sustaining such an injury ( Buzzini & Guskiewicz, 2006 ; Kirkwood, Yeates, & Wilson, 2006 ). Youth not only tend to sustain the most sport-related concussions, but also appear to be particularly vulnerable to the effects of

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Kevin M. Guskiewicz and Samuel R. Walton

fluid biomarkers in the assessment of sport-related concussion, the authors reported somewhat consistent evidence for changes in white-matter structural integrity, functional connectivity, and metabolic alterations in the acute and subacute phases of concussion ( McCrea et al., 2017 ). However, the