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John R. Sirard, Karin A. Pfeiffer, Marsha Dowda and Russell R. Pate

The purpose of this study was to identify racial differences in physical activity (PA), fitness, and BMI in female 8th-grade sports participants and nonparticipants. Girls from 31 South Carolina middle schools (N = 1,903, 48% White; mean age = 13.6 ± 0.63) reported PA and previous year sports-team participation, completed a submaximal fitness test, and had height and weight measured. Sports team participation was positively associated with PA and negatively associated with television viewing and BMI, in a dose-response manner. Compared with Whites, African-Americans reported less PA and more television viewing, and had greater BMI scores. Whereas PA intervention programs that incorporate a sports-team component could benefit all girls, African-American girls could be specifically targeted because of their lower physical activity.

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Maureen R. Weiss and Susan C. Duncan

Youth sport literature contends that the development of self-esteem is influenced by social interactions in the physical domain. However, little research has investigated the role of the peer group in developing perceptions of physical competence and social acceptance. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship, between competence in physical skills and interpersonal competence with peers in a sport setting. Children (N=126) completed measures assessing perceptions of physical competence and peer acceptance» perceptions of success for athletic performance and interpersonal skills, causal attributions for physical performance and interpersonal success» and expectations for future success in these two areas. Teachers' ratings of children's actual physical ability and social skills with peers were also obtained. Canonical correlation analyses indicated a strong relationship (r c = .75) between indices of physical competence and peer acceptance. Children who scored high in actual and perceived physical competence and who made stable and personally controllable attributions for sport performance also scored high in actual and perceived peer acceptance and made stable attributions for successful peer interactions.

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Peter T. Katzmarzyk and Robert M. Malina

The contribution of organized sport participation to the total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) of youth was estimated in a sample of 90 males and 93 females, 12-14 years of age. TDEE and moderate-to-vigorous energy expenditure (MVEE) were estimated using a 3-day activity record. Males expended 20.4% of TDEE in youth sports; the corresponding estimate for females was 16.3%. Males and females expended 55% and 64.6%, respectively, of MVEE in youth sports. Youth who participated in organized sports had greater TDEE and MVEE, and spent less time watching television than those who did not participate. Thus, organized sport participation appears to be a significant component of daily energy expenditure among youth.

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David Collins, Bruce Hale and Joe Loomis

Studies of sport participation that include emotional responses, particularly anger, are frequently flawed because measures consist of associative paper–pencil inventories and archival data. In the present study, startle response (an aversive reflex) was enhanced during an unpleasant emotional state and diminished in a pleasant emotional context. Nonsignificant differences on this dispositional measure between 36 athletes and nonathletes did not replicate findings differing normals and psychopaths (Patrick, Bradley, & Lang, 1993) on emotional responsivity. Similarity was also apparent in experiential aspects of anger responsivity as revealed by the check for differences in attributional style. No significant intergroup differences were found in participants’ responses to realistic situations (termed vignettes), in evaluation of the anger/provocation inherent in the situation, in the reasons attributed to the “frustrater,” or in self-reported intended response. Implications for future sport research on emotional responsivity, anger and aggressive behavior are discussed.

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Alessandra Madia Mantovani, Manoel Carlos Spiguel de Lima, Luis Alberto Gobbo, Enio Ricardo Vaz Ronque, Marcelo Romanzini, Bruna Camilo Turi-Lynch, Jamile Sanches Codogno and Rômulo Araújo Fernandes

participation in organized sports, there is a massive occurrence of dropouts from childhood to adolescence, 13 which is different in boys and girls. 14 Moreover, sports participation is highly prevalent during childhood and adolescence, but it decreases drastically in later life, 14 , 15 raising concerns

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Gabriella McLoughlin, Courtney Weisman Fecske, Yvette Castaneda, Candace Gwin and Kim Graber

within reasonable proximity, and the absence of support from individuals without a physical disability ( Jaarsma, Geertzen, Jong, Dijkstra, & Dekker, 2014 ; Wu & Williams, 2001 ). Facilitators of sports participation for individuals with and without a physical disability appear to be similar. Both

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Pooja S. Tandon, Tyler Sasser, Erin S. Gonzalez, Kathryn B. Whitlock, Dimitri A. Christakis and Mark A. Stein

with sports participation in children. 12 However, children with ADHD may encounter unique challenges to participating in PA and sports, including increased rates of noncompliant and disruptive behaviors. 13 This is concerning because engaging in PA (through sports or otherwise) is associated with

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Jonathan M. Miller, Mark A. Pereira, Julian Wolfson, Melissa N. Laska, Toben F. Nelson and Dianne Neumark-Sztainer

-effects analysis of correlates of MVPA in EAT-2010 participants found that among both boys and girls, sports participation, self-efficacy, enjoyment, self-management, parent direct help, and friend support were positively associated with MVPA. 22 Among girls, additionally, barriers like too little time were

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Timothy Martinson, Stephen A. Butterfield, Craig A. Mason, Shihfen Tu, Robert A. Lehnhard and Christopher J. Nightingale

were converted to BMI data. School officials verified school sports participation. The investigators did not consider participation in sport activities (both organized and recreational) outside of school due to challenges in gathering accurately reported participation levels by school-aged participants

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Brendan Dwyer, Joris Drayer and Stephen L. Shapiro

empirical research is needed to explore contemporary fantasy sports participation from a dispositional and attitudinal perspective. Theoretical Framework The decision to play DFS (a new activity) as opposed to TFS-only participation or any form of gambling for that matter does not occur in a vacuum. Several