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Gwendolyn M. Weatherford, Betty A. Block and Fredrick L. Wagner

. Boston, MA : Houghton Mifflin . Wertheim , L.J. ( 2004 ). The whole world is watching . Sports Illustrated, 100 ( 24 ), 72 – 86 . Women’s Sports Foundation . ( 2016 ). Benefits– why sports participation for girls and women . Retrieved from https://www.womenssportsfoundation.org/advocate/foundation-positions/mental-physical-health/benefits-sports-participation

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Tom Perks

parents from low-income families . Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12 ( 5 ), 490 – 499 . doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2011.05.007 Manz , K. , Krug , S. , Schienkiewitz , A. , & Finger , J.D. ( 2016 ). Determinants of organised sports participation patterns during the transition from childhood

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Leticia Oseguera, Dan Merson, C. Keith Harrison and Sue Rankin

importance of culture and the historical role sports participation has provided to access to higher education” (p. 373) and encouraged other researchers to unpack campus climate. Examining division status differences and academic performance, Richards and Aries ( 1999 ) showed that college athletes graduate

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Orlagh Farmer, Donna Duffy, Kevin Cahill, Diarmuid Lester, Sarahjane Belton and Wesley O’Brien

( 1 ), 86 . doi:10.1186/1479-5868-9-86 10.1186/1479-5868-9-86 Marques , A. , Ekelund , U. , & Sardinha , L.B. ( 2016 ). Associations between organized sports participation and objectively measured physical activity, sedentary time and weight status in adolescents . Journal of Science and

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Christina A. Geithner, Claire E. Molenaar, Tommy Henriksson, Anncristine Fjellman-Wiklund and Kajsa Gilenstam

; Theberge, 1997 ) that are linked to women’s sports being less popular than men’s ( Baker, Schorer, et al., 2010 ; Barnsley & Thompson, 1988 ; Theberge, 1997 ). Also, sports participation starts at a later age in females compared to males ( Wattie et al., 2007 ) and fewer participants in women’s ice

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Paulette Stevenson

actually links up better with Saudi “state-sponsored feminism” through the global north’s markers of empowerment including education and sports participation ( Al-Rasheed, 2013 , p. 294). A Saudi woman that appeared more approachable to the global north would better speak to the global north’s human rights

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David Ekholm

. , van Regenmortel , T. , & Scheerder , J. ( 2017 ). “There are alternatives, but your social life is curtailed”: Poverty and sports participation from an insider perspective . Social Indicators Research, 133 ( 1 ), 119 – 138 . doi:10.1007/s11205-016-1360-z 10.1007/s11205-016-1360-z Verhagen

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Dawn Heinecken

“About Women. By Women. For Us All” is the tagline for ESPN’s Nine for IX documentary series about women in sport. Developed to commemorate the 1972 passage of Title IX, the legislation responsible for the dramatic increase in female sports participation in the United States, ESPN promotes Nine

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Marijke Taks and Stefan Késenne

This study measures the share of the sports sector in the regional economy of Flanders by means of expenditure related to active sports participation and spectator sport. In contrast with the more common cost-benefit approach, the perspective of this study is rather macroeconomic. A representative sample of 512 households was interviewed by means of a standardized questionnaire. Data on government expenditure were gathered from an analysis of budgets and bills. Private investments and the balance of trade statistics were estimated. All these expenditures, $4.3 billion U.S., constitute the Gross Regional Sport Product for Flanders. During the past 15 years, household expenditure in sport has increased, while government expenditure has stagnated. However, government intervention remains necessary for setting up the legal context, financing the construction and maintenance of a rich variety of sports facilities, and for lowering the price threshold for low-income families. This study has shown the importance of the sports sector for the Flemish economy, mainly through household expenditure.

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Mary Jo Kane

This study examined the impact of Title IX on media coverage given to female athletes to determine if there has been a shift away from negative social stereotypes traditionally associated with women’s sports participation toward a more socially accepting view of the female athlete. A content analysis of feature articles within 1,228 issues of Sports Illustrated was undertaken for the years 1964-1987. These represented three 8-year time spans before (1964-71), during (1972-79), and after (1980-87) Title IX. In order to assess whether attitudes have changed toward female athletes as related to a Title IX timeline, amount and type of coverage were considered. Chi-square analyses revealed mixed results. There was a significant increase in the proportion of coverage given to women in athletic (e.g., professional golfer) versus nonathletic (e.g., swimsuit model) roles. However, feature articles about female athletes gave significantly more coverage to women in "sex-appropriate" sports such as tennis versus "sex-inappropriate" sports such as rugby, regardless of the Title IX time frame. Results are discussed in terms of challenging current beliefs that women’s athletics have gained widespread social acceptance following the enactment of Tide IX. Implications for practitioners and academics within sport management are presented.