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Trisha Patel and Neeru Jayanthi

studies suggest that parents’ sports participation, whether through physical activity or team involvement, is a key factor in child sports participation ( Fuemmeler, Anderson, & Masse, 2011 ; Kremarik, 2000 ), and the senior author had previously demonstrated that both specialized young athletes and

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Thomas W. Rowland, Richard C. McFaul and David A. Burton

Syncope during sports participation may serve as the first manifestation of cardiovascular disease that poses a risk for athletic training and competition. Other causes of syncope (vasovagal, dehydration) during physical activity may be more benign. The athlete who faints during sports deserves a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation that addresses the wide-ranging differential diagnosis involved. The case of a 14-year-old male with two syncopal spells during athletic training is presented to review the components of such a workup and subsequent management implications.

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Eva Martin-Diener, Simon Foster, Meichun Mohler-Kuo and Brian W. Martin

Background:

This study investigates the relationships between physical activity (PA), sports participation and sensation seeking or aggression and injury risk in young men.

Methods:

A representative cohort study was conducted with 4686 conscripts for the Swiss army. Risk factors assessed at baseline were PA, the frequency of sports participation, sensation seeking, and aggression. The number of injuries during the past 12 months was reported 16 months after baseline. Exposure to moderate-tovigorous physical activity (MVPA) was estimated based on baseline PA.

Results:

Among conscripts, 48.5% reported at least 1 injury for the past 12 months. After accounting for exposure to MVPA, the most inactive individuals (reference group) had the highest injury risk and those with high levels of PA and weekly sports participation the lowest (Poisson regression analysis: incidence rate ratio = 0.14 [0.12–0.16]). Independent of activity level, sensation seeking increased cumulative injury incidence significantly (Logistic regression analysis [injured vs. not injured]: odds ratio = 1.29 [1.02–1.63]) and incidence rates marginally. Aggression was marginally associated only with cumulative injury incidence and only in those participating in daily sports.

Conclusions:

When accounting for exposure to PA, being inactive is a strong injury risk factor in young men, whereas the roles of the personality variables are less clear.

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Zewditu Demissie, Richard Lowry, Danice K. Eaton, Marci F. Hertz and Sarah M. Lee

Background:

This study investigated associations of violence-related behaviors with physical activity (PA)-related behaviors among U.S. high school students.

Methods:

Data from the 2009 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of 9th–12th grade students, were analyzed. Sex-stratified, adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for associations between violence-related behaviors and being physically active for ≥ 60 minutes daily, sports participation, TV watching for ≥ 3 hours/day, and video game/computer use for ≥ 3 hours/day.

Results:

Among male students, at-school bullying victimization was negatively associated with daily PA (aOR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.58–0.87) and sports participation; skipping school because of safety concerns was positively associated with video game/computer use (1.42; 1.01–2.00); and physical fighting was positively associated with daily PA. Among female students, atschool bullying victimization and skipping school because of safety concerns were both positively associated with video game/computer use (1.46; 1.19–1.79 and 1.60; 1.09–2.34, respectively), and physical fighting at school was negatively associated with sports participation and positively associated with TV watching.

Conclusions:

Bullying victimization emerged as a potentially important risk factor for insufficient PA. Schools should consider the role of violence in initiatives designed to promote PA.

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Stephen M. Paridon

Over the past two decades, improvements in diagnostic and surgical techniques have dramatically altered the outlook for children with congenital heart defects. Even with complex lesions, most of these children are now surviving to an age were issues of exercise and sports participation must be considered. In this review, the various factors that affect cardiovascular performance during exercise are examined in terms of how they relate to different types of congenital heart defects. The effect of anatomy, myocardial stress, and associated noncardiac abnormalities are discussed. Exercise performance in the major classes of cardiac defects and factors limiting performance in these classes are reviewed.

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Patricia Marten DiBartolo and Carey Shaffer

This study examines eating attitudes, body satisfaction, reasons for exercise, and general psychological well-being in female nonathletes and Division III college athletes. A total of 115 nonathletes and 94 athletes completed measures of eating attitudes, body satisfaction, trait affect, reasons for exercise, and perceived self-competence. On the majority of measures, the scores of athletes revealed less eating disorder symptomatology and more healthy psychological functioning than the scores of nonathletes. These results indicate that female athletic involvement can be associated with healthy eating and psychological functioning. Future research should give consideration to which environments may foster healthy sports participation.

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Daniel R. Taber, Charlotte Pratt, Eileen Y. Charneco, Marsha Dowda, Jennie A. Phillips and Scott B. Going

Background:

There is controversy regarding whether moderately-intense sports can improve physical fitness, which declines throughout adolescence among girls. The objective was to estimate the association between moderate and vigorous sports participation and cardiorespiratory fitness in a racially diverse sample of adolescent girls.

Methods:

Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using a modified physical work capacity test in 1029 eighth-grade girls participating in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls. Girls reported sports in which they participated in the last year on an organized activity questionnaire. Using general linear mixed models, the study regressed absolute and relative fitness on the number of vigorous and moderate sports in which girls participated, race/ethnicity, age, treatment group, fat mass, fat-free mass, and an interaction between race and fat-free mass.

Results:

The number of vigorous sports in which girls participated was positively associated with absolute fitness (β = 10.20, P = .04) and relative fitness (β = 0.17, P = .04). Associations were reduced, but not eliminated, after controlling for MET-weighted MVPA. Participation in moderate sports was not associated with either fitness measure.

Conclusions:

Vigorous sports participation is positively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness. Future longitudinal research should analyze whether promoting vigorous sports at an early age can prevent age-related declines in cardiorespiratory fitness among adolescent girls.

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William J. Kraemer, Andrew C. Fry, Peter N. Frykman, Brian Conroy and Jay Hoffman

The use of resistance training for children has increased in popularity and interest. It appears that children are capable of voluntary strength gains. Exercise prescription in younger populations is critical and requires certain program variables to be altered from adult perspectives. Individualization is vital, as the rate of physiological maturation has an impact on the adaptations that occur. The major difference in programs for children is the use of lighter loads (i.e., > 6 RM loads). It appears that longer duration programs (i.e., 10-20 wks) are better for observing training adaptations. This may be due to the fact that it takes more exercise to stimulate adaptational mechanisms related to strength performance beyond that of normal growth rates. The risk of injury appears low during participation in a resistance training program, and this risk is minimized with proper supervision and instruction. Furthermore, with the incidence of injury in youth sports, participation in a resistance training program may provide a protective advantage in one’s preparation for sports participation.

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Clemens Drenowatz, Olivia Wartha, Jochen Klenk, Susanne Brandstetter, Martin Wabitsch and Jürgen Steinacker

This study examined the association between biological maturity, CVD risk, fitness and health behavior in 709 (359 male, 350 female) 8-year-old children (range: 6.3–8.9 years). Sports participation and sedentary behavior was assessed via parent questionnaire. Height and weight was measured and maturity status was predicted based on % of adult-height reached. Fitness was assessed via a test battery and CVD risk was determined using mean arterial pressure, cholesterol and intra-abdominal fat. BMIpercentiles (BMIPCT) differed significantly among early, average and late maturing children. Early maturing children displayed a higher CVD risk profile (0.5 vs. -0.2), lower fitness scores (-0.4 vs. 0.2), and spent more time watching TV (51 vs. 43 min/day) compared with their peers. After controlling for BMIPCT differences remained only for fitness in boys and TV time in girls.

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Renée M. Parker, Michael J. Lambert and Gary M. Burlingame

The present study was conducted to determine if female distance runners who report engaging in pathological food behaviors display the psychological characteristics of clinically diagnosed female eating-disordered patients. Comparisons were made among 29 eating-disturbed college runners, 31 normal college runners, 19 clinically diagnosed eating-disordered patients, and 34 nonathletic, non-eating-disordered college students. Measures included a 3-day diet journal, questionnaires collecting both personal information and information on eating behaviors and sports participation, the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), the Setting Conditions for Anorexia Nervosa Scale (SCANS), and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Without reaching eating-disordered clinical levels, the eating-disturbed runners appeared on psychological inventories as being more concerned with food and dieting than were the comparison runners and non-eating-disordered nonathletes. Only the eating-disordered group presented with significant levels of psychopathology. Implications for the athletic community are discussed.