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Andrea Monte, Francesca Nardello and Paola Zamparo


The effects of different loads on kinematic and kinetic variables during sled towing were investigated with the aim to identify the optimal overload for this specific sprint training.


Thirteen male sprinters (100-m personal best: 10.91 ± 0.14 s) performed 5 maximal trials over a 20-m distance in the following conditions: unloaded and with loads from 15% to 40% of the athlete’s body mass (BM). In these calculations the sled mass and friction were taken into account. Contact and flight times, stride length, horizontal hip velocity (vh), and relative angles of hip, knee, and ankle (at touchdown and takeoff) were measured step by step. In addition, the horizontal force (Fh) and power (Ph) and maximal force (Fh0) and power (Ph0) were calculated.


vh, flight time, and step length decreased while contact time increased with increasing load (P < .001). These variables changed significantly also as a function of the step number (P < .01), except between the 2 last steps. No differences were observed in Fh among loads, but Fh was larger in sled towing than in unloaded. Ph was unaffected by load up to +20%BM but decreased with larger loads. Fh0 and Ph0 were achieved at 20%BM. Up to 20%BM, no significant effects on joint angles were observed at touchdown and takeoff, while at loads >30%BM joint angles tended to decrease.


The 20%BM condition represents the optimal overload for peak power production—at this load sprinters reach their highest power without significant changes in their running technique (eg, joint angles).

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trusting relationships. The Effect of Individualised Sprint Training in Elite Female Team Sport Athletes: A Pilot Study Rakovic, Paulsen E., Helland, C., Eriksrud, O., & Haugen, T. (2018). Journal of Sport Sciences, 36 (24), 2802–2808. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2018.1474536 Recent research in sport science

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David Rodríguez-Osorio, Oliver Gonzalo-Skok and Fernando Pareja-Blanco

conditioning program emphasizes similar motor patterns and contraction types to those used in actual games. 10 In this regard, resisted sprint training, such as sled towing and weighted vest training, is commonly performed to enhance sprinting performance. 10 In fact, there are several studies that have

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* Catherine J. Field * Christopher M. Sellar * Vicki J. Harber * Gordon J. Bell * 12 2008 3 4 531 546 10.1123/ijspp.3.4.531 Invited Commentary Inference About Magnitudes of Effects Richard J. Barker * Matthew R. Schofield * 12 2008 3 4 547 557 10.1123/ijspp.3.4.547 Technical Report Sprint Training

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Xavier Woorons, François Billaut and Henry Vandewalle

.2165/11590560-000000000-00000 21846163 4. Brocherie F , Girard O , Faiss R , Millet GP . Effects of repeated-sprint training in hypoxia on sea-level performance: a meta-analysis . Sports Med . 2017 ; 47 : 1651 – 1660 . PubMed ID: 28194720 doi:10.1007/s40279-017-0685-3 28194720 10.1007/s40279-017-0685-3 5. Brocherie F

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: Unilateral Versus Bilateral Combined Resistance Training Oliver Gonzalo-Skok * Julio Tous-Fajardo * Luis Suarez-Arrones * José Luis Arjol-Serrano * José Antonio Casajús * Alberto Mendez-Villanueva * 1 2017 12 1 106 114 10.1123/ijspp.2015-0743 Psychophysiological Responses to Repeated-Sprint

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Thomas Haugen

that thesis was already implemented in the training framework of Norwegian pioneer endurance coaches in the 1970s. Similarly, the very best coaches in sprint training also seem to be decades ahead of sport science in how training principles and methods are applied. 2 Possible explanations for such

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* Crystal O. Kean * 11 2016 11 8 987 997 10.1123/ijspp.2016-0169 Original Investigation Two Weeks of Repeated-Sprint Training in Soccer: To Turn or Not to Turn? Jonathan M. Taylor * Tom W. Macpherson * Shaun J. McLaren * Iain Spears * Matthew Weston * 11 2016 11 8 998 1004 10

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Players Michael J.A. Speranza * Tim J. Gabbett * Rich D. Johnston * Jeremy M. Sheppard * 9 2015 10 6 754 760 10.1123/ijspp.2015-0044 Effects of Sprint Training With or Without Ball Carry in Elite Rugby Players Laurent B. Seitz * Matt Barr * G. Gregory Haff * 9 2015 10 6 761 766 10

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It Seems Claude Karcher * Martin Buchheit * 3 2017 12 3 322 328 10.1123/ijspp.2016-0055 Repeated-Sprint Training in Hypoxia Induced by Voluntary Hypoventilation in Swimming Laurent Trincat * Xavier Woorons * Grégoire P. Millet * 3 2017 12 3 329 335 10.1123/ijspp.2015-0674 Concurrent