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Neil D. Clarke, Darren L. Richardson, James Thie and Richard Taylor

substrate utilization during exercise with a decrease in glycogen utilization and an increase in free fatty acid mobilization. 26 However, alterations in substrate utilization are unlikely to mediate performance changes in this study due to fat metabolism representing a minor substrate and muscle glycogen

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Sally P. Waterworth, Connor C. Spencer, Aaron L. Porter and James P. Morton

. Breath-by-breath gas analysis (CPX Ultima; Medgraphics) was measured for 2 min during 8–10, 18–20, and 28–30 min, and substrate utilization was assessed according to Jeukendrup and Wallis ( 2005 ). Blood glucose and blood lactate samples were obtained at 15 and 30 min. Measurements of HR (F10; Polar) and

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Matthew I. Black, Joseph C. Handsaker, Sam J. Allen, Stephanie E. Forrester and Jonathan P. Folland

equations 24 were used to estimate substrate utilization (g/min). The energy derived from each substrate was calculated by multiplying fat and carbohydrate utilization by 9.75 and 4.07 kcal, respectively. 25 Absolute energy cost was calculated as the sum of the energy derived from fat and carbohydrate for

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Ryan P. Durk, Esperanza Castillo, Leticia Márquez-Magaña, Gregory J. Grosicki, Nicole D. Bolter, C. Matthew Lee and James R. Bagley

metabolic activity of gut microbiota in obese children is increased compared with normal-weight children and exhibits more exhaustive substrate utilization . Nutrition and Diabetes, 1 , e12 . PubMed ID: 23154580 doi:10.1038/nutd.2011.8 10.1038/nutd.2011.8 Peng , L. , Li , Z.R. , Green , R

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Trent Stellingwerff, James P. Morton and Louise M. Burke

 al. ( 2019 ) in the current series. To undertake periodization of EI, the nutrition professional and coach need to undertake a full audit of step #3 (within Figure  1 ) of our framework through a nutrition lens. This assessment should include estimations of total caloric and substrate utilization for each

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Ben J. Lee and Charles Douglas Thake

Subsequent alterations in substrate utilization due to reduced O 2 availability are also apparent. 15 – 17 The cardiorespiratory adjustments caused by the imposition of a hypoxic stress, therefore, represent a potentially useful alternative stimulus, rather than increasing speed, for increasing

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Cathal Cassidy, Kieran Collins and Marcus Shortall

likely result in suboptimal muscle glycogen concentrations ( Burke et al., 2011 ). Low glycogen levels may have a detrimental effect on the ability of the players to fulfill the physical and physiological demands of match play considering that glycogen is the main energy substrate utilized by skeletal

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Gregory Severino, Marcos Sanchez-Gonzalez, Michelle Walters-Edwards, Michael Nordvall, Oksana Chernykh, Jason Adames and Alexei Wong

.A. ( 2007 ). The effects of movement velocity during squatting on energy expenditure and substrate utilization in whole-body vibration . Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 21 ( 2 ), 594 – 598 . PubMed doi: 10.1519/R-20566.1 Guérin , E. , & Fortier , M.S. ( 2012 ). Situational

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Samuel G. Impey, Kelly M. Hammond, Robert Naughton, Carl Langan-Evans, Sam O. Shepherd, Adam P. Sharples, Jessica Cegielski, Kenneth Smith, Stewart Jeromson, David L. Hamilton, Graeme L. Close and James P. Morton

and perceptual measures were recorded at regular intervals throughout exercise (e.g., heart rate, RPE) and substrate utilization was assessed during the steady-state component of the exercise protocol using online gas analysis (CPX Ultima; Medgraphics, St Paul, MN) according to Jeukendrup and Wallis

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Scott Cocking, Mathew G. Wilson, David Nichols, N. Timothy Cable, Daniel J. Green, Dick H. J. Thijssen and Helen Jones

suggestive of alterations in substrate utilization, with a proposed heightened anaerobic energy contribution. This was recently inferred by Cruz et al, 31 who demonstrated that 4 × 5-minute cycles of IPC improved 60-second sprint-cycling performance and led to increased skeletal-muscle activation during