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Steven Loy

3 WINS Fitness is a student-delivered free exercise program for the community delivered in public parks. We believe this program, which operates without external funding and has been sustained for 6 years, is one significant solution to reducing the level of physical inactivity in the United States. The operative 3 WINS in our program are participant health, community health, and student professional development. The primary focus has been underserved communities, and our current eight programs in Los Angeles, serve over 300 participants regularly. Three challenges to the program are student empowerment, faculty understanding and involvement, and establishing the relationship between university and parks, which represent a vital partnership. However, the accomplishment of undergraduate students having such a dynamic impact on public health underscores the need for encouraging this sustainable and innovative strategy to increase the physical activity levels of communities across America.

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Lisa T. Washburn, Carol E. Cornell, Martha Phillips, Holly Felix and LaVona Traywick

Background:

The effect of volunteer lay leaders on availability and sustainability of strength-training programs for older adults has not been well explored. We describe implementation of the StrongWomen strength training program by the Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service, and report on the relationship between delivery approach (agent-led, lay-led, or combination of agent- and lay-led) and program access and sustainability.

Methods:

All state Extension agents (n = 66) were surveyed on program implementation, continuance, and use of lay leaders. Program records were used to identify the number of trained lay leaders. Regression models were used to examine the relationship between delivery approach and group availability.

Results:

Counties using lay leaders had twice as many groups as counties using only agents. There was a significant, positive relationship between the number of lay leaders and the number of groups. Counties using lay leaders were 8.3 times more likely to have continuing groups compared with counties not using lay leaders.

Conclusions:

Program continuance was significantly and positively associated with lay leader use. Lay delivery expanded access to strength training programs and increased the likelihood that programs would continue. This approach can be used to increase access to and sustainability of strength training programs, particularly in resource-constrained areas.

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Michelle Flemons, Fiona Diffey and Dominic Cunliffe

established school expectations ( Tinning, 1988 ). These future teachers will then have the opportunity to become sustainable practitioners who will employ authentic teaching approaches in line with promoting physical literacy and hopefully also influence the socialization process of future generations

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Nico Schulenkorf and Deborah Edwards

Building on the evidence of social impacts generated by sport events, there is a need for research to identify strategies suitable for maximizing event benefits for disparate interest communities. This paper investigates the opportunities and strategic means for sustaining and leveraging social event benefits arising from intercommunity sport events in the ethnically divided Sri Lanka. Following an interpretive mode of inquiry, findings are derived from the analysis of two focus groups and 35 in-depth interviews with Sinhalese, Tamil, Muslim and international event stakeholders. To maximize event benefits, findings suggest that event organizers and host communities focus strategically on children as catalysts for change; increase ethnically mixed team sport activities; provide event-related sociocultural opportunities; combine large-scale events with regular sport-for-development programs; and engage in social, cultural, political and educational event leverage. By implementing these strategies and tactics, intercommunity sport events are likely to contribute to local capacity building and inclusive social change, which can have flow-on effects to the wider community. These findings extend the academic literature on strategic event planning, management and leverage, as they provide a focus on community event leverage for social purposes in a developing world context—an area which has thus far received limited empirical research.

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Juan Andrés Merino-Barrero, Alfonso Valero-Valenzuela, Noelia Belando Pedreño and Javier Fernandez-Río

Purpose: To assess the impact of a sustained Teaching for Personal and Social Responsibility program in Physical Education. Method: There were 72 primary and secondary education students (11–13 years), enrolled in two different schools, and their four teachers were randomly distributed into an experimental group (n = 35) and a nonequivalent group (n = 37) by their schools’ administration. A pre-/posttest, repeated-measures nonequivalent group design was used. The two teachers of the experimental group implemented a Teaching for Personal and Social Responsibility program, whereas the two teachers of the nonequivalent group used Direct Instruction in their classes over four consecutive learning units (29 sessions, 5 months). Results: Students in the experimental group significantly increased their personal and social responsibility (p < .01), self-determined motivation (p < .01), basic psychological needs satisfaction (competence, autonomy, and relatedness; p < .01), sportsmanship (p < .05), and intention to be physically active outside school (p < .05). Conclusion: The Teaching for Personal and Social Responsibility program was more able to increase students’ self-determined motivation and to generate positive psychosocial consequences than the Direct Instruction approach.

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Guro Strøm Solli, Espen Tønnessen and Øyvind Sandbakk

of helping an overtrained athlete to regain sustainable high performance. In a recent study, we investigated the longitudinal training characteristics of the world’s best female XC skier. 4 After being the world’s highest ranked female XC skier from 2004 to 2006, the athlete experienced a critical

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Scott Ryan Dietrich

Edited by Malissa Martin

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J. Brett Massie, David V. Donnelly and Kimberly L. Ricker

Edited by Tricia Hubbard

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Scott Ryan Dietrich

Edited by Malissa Martin

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Scott L. Bruce and Kyra Dorney

Current literature indicates loss of consciousness occurs in about 10% of concussions. Posturing presentations represent brain injuries and a loss of consciousness. The purpose of this study was to observe video evidence of football-game-related concussions to determine the rate in which a posturing presentation occurs in reported concussion. Over the course of three National Football League and three National Collegiate Athletic Association football seasons, 103 videos of 805 reported concussions met the inclusion criteria; 35 videos demonstrated a posturing presentation, for a rate of 33.98%. Our study indicates that the published statistic regarding loss of consciousness (occurring only about 10% of the time) may be too conservative.