We compared ad libitum fluid consumption in adolescent (n = 15) and adult athletes (n = 34) exercising in similar environmental conditions (26.5°C, 27.3% relative humidity) and similar modes and intensities of exercise (80-85% of their age-predicted maximum heart rate). Throughout 1 hr of exercise, participants had access to sports bottles containing a sports drink (6% carbohydrate with electrolytes and identical flavoring). Sweat rate (SR) and percent dehydration were calculated from the change in body weight corrected for urine loss and fluid intake (FI). FI was significantly higher for the adults than for the adolescents. SR was also higher for the adults compared with that of the adolescents. Compared with adults, adolescents had significantly lower FI and SR, the combination of which allowed them to meet their fluid needs more closely during exercise. Minimal voluntary dehydration occurred in either group during exercise, possibly because of the nature of the exercise (noncompetitive) or the beverage characteristics (presence of sodium and sweetness) or availability of the beverage.
Craig A. Horswill, Dennis H. Passe, John R. Stofan, Mary K. Horn and Robert Murray
Boguslaw Wilk, Susi Kriemler, Heidemarie Keller and Oded Bar-Or
Twelve 10- to 12-year-old healthy boys performed six 70-min intermittent exercise sessions (three 20-min cycling bouts at 50%VO2max with 5 min rest in between) over a 2-week period at 35 ± 1 °C, 50 ± 5% or 60 ± 5% relative humidity. Subjects drank grape-flavored solution with 6% carbohydrate (2% glucose, 4% sucrose) and 18.0 mmol ⋅ L−1 NaCl ad libitum. Body weight (BW), heart rate, rectal temperature, thirst, and stomach fullness perception were monitored periodically. There were no differences among the six sessions in voluntary drink intake (765-902 g). hydration level (+0.75 to +1.07 %BW), sweating rate (245-263 g ⋅ m−2 ⋅ hr−1), and the other physiological and perceptual variables. A positive fluid balance was achieved in 67 out of 72 sessions. Voluntary drink intake of grape-flavored carbohydraie-NaCl beverage was consistently sufficient to prevent dehydration in 10- to 12-year-old boys during repeated exposures of exercise in the heat. This effect is likely to be achieved through a combination of physiological and behavioral mechanisms.
Kevin J. Beasley
Gaelic football is the second most popular team sport in Ireland in terms of participation. However, very little research exists on the nutritional considerations for elite male Gaelic footballers. Gaelic football is an intermittent type field game played by two teams of fifteen players. Although amateurs, elite players may train and compete 4–5 times per week and may play for several teams. Research suggests that elite footballers are similar anthropometrically and in fitness to professional soccer players. Work-rate analysis shows that footballers experience longer durations of high-intensity (HI) activity (5–7s) and shorter rest durations than soccer players. Recent data suggests that half-forward/backs perform a greater amount of HI work during games than players in other positions. Fatigue is apparent between the first and second halves and the first and fourth quarters. The limited amount of nutritional studies conducted implies that footballers may be deficient in energy intake and may be at the lower end of recommended carbohydrate intakes to support training. A wide variety of sweat rates have been measured during training, demonstrating the importance of individual hydration strategies. Ergogenic aids such as creatine and caffeine may prove beneficial to performance, although data are extrapolated from other sports. Due to the lack of research in Gaelic football, further population specific studies are required. Future areas of research on the impact of nutrition on Gaelic football performance are examined. In particular, the creation of a test protocol mimicking the activity patterns and intensity of a Gaelic football game is warranted.
L.P. Kilduff, E. Georgiades, N. James, R.H. Minnion, M. Mitchell, D. Kingsmore, M. Hadjicharalambous and Y.P. Pitsiladis
The effects of creatine (Cr) supplementation on cardiovascular, metabolic, and thermoregulatory responses, and on the capacity of trained humans to perform prolonged exercise in the heat was examined. Endurance-trained males (n = 21) performed 2 constant-load exercise tests to exhaustion at 63 ± 5 % VO2max in the heat (ambient temperature: 30.3 ± 0.5 °C) before and after 7 d of Cr (20 g · d–1 ’ Cr + 140 g • d–1 glucose polymer) or placebo. Cr increased intraccl-lular water and reduced thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses (e.g., heart rate, rectal temperature, sweat rate) but did not significantly increase time to exhaustion (47.0 ± 4.7 min vs. 49.7 ± 7.5 min, P = 0.095). Time to exhaustion was increased significantly in subjects whose estimated intramuscular Cr levels were substantially increased (“responders”: 47.3 ± 4.9 min vs. 51.7 ± 7.4 min, P = 0.031). Cr-induced hyperhydration can result in a more efficient thermoregulatory response during prolonged exercise in the heat.
Alan J. Ryan, Amy E. Navarre and Carl V. Gisolfi
These studies were done to determine the effect of carbonation and carbohydrate content on either gastric emptying or ad libitum drinking during treadmill exercise in the heat. Four test drinks were used: a 6% carbohydrate, noncarbonated; a 6% carbohydrate, carbonated; a 10% carbohydrate, noncarbonated; and a 10% carbohydrate, carbonated drink. For gastric emptying studies, subjects completed four 1-hr treadmill runs in the heat. They were given 400 mL of test drink at 0 rnin and 200 mL at 15, 30, and 45 min of exercise. For ad libitum drinking studies, subjects completed four 2-hr treadmill runs in the heat. Gastric residual volumes were similar during the four 1-hr runs. During the 2-hr runs, ad libitum drinking of the four beverages was also similar. Mean values for sweat rate, percentage of body weight lost, and percentage of fluid replaced by ad libitum drinking were similar for the four trials. Similar changes in heart rate, rectal temperature, and ratings of perceived exertion were also observed during the four 2-hr treadmill runs. We conclude that the presence of carbonation in a carbohydrate drink did not have a significant effect on either gastric emptying or ad libitum drinking.
Ronald J. Maughan and Susan M. Shirreffs
Athletes are encouraged to begin exercise well hydrated and to consume sufficient amounts of appropriate fluids during exercise to limit water and salt deficits. Available evidence suggests that many athletes begin exercise already dehydrated to some degree, and although most fail to drink enough to match sweat losses, some drink too much and a few develop hyponatremia. Some simple advice can help athletes assess their hydration status and develop a personalized hydration strategy that takes account of exercise, environment, and individual needs. Preexercise hydration status can be assessed from urine frequency and volume, with additional information from urine color, specific gravity, or osmolality. Change in hydration during exercise can be estimated from the change in body mass that occurs during a bout of exercise. Sweat rate can be estimated if fluid intake and urinary losses are also measured. Sweat salt losses can be determined by collection and analysis of sweat samples, but athletes losing large amounts of salt are likely to be aware of the taste of salt in sweat and the development of salt crusts on skin and clothing where sweat has evaporated. An appropriate drinking strategy will take account of preexercise hydration status and of fluid, electrolyte, and substrate needs before, during, and after a period of exercise. Strategies will vary greatly between individuals and will also be influenced by environmental conditions, competition regulations, and other factors.
Mindy L. Millard-Stafford, Kirk J. Cureton, Jonathan E. Wingo, Jennifer Trilk, Gordon L. Warren and Maxime Buyckx
Caffeine is regarded as a diuretic despite evidence that hydration is not impaired with habitual ingestion. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a caffeinated sports drink impairs fluid delivery and hydration during exercise in warm, humid conditions (28.5 °C, 60% relative humidity). Sixteen cyclists completed 3 trials: placebo (P), carbohydrate-electrolyte (CE), and caffeinated (195 mg/L) sports drink (CAF+CE). Subjects cycled for 120 min at 60–75%VO2max followed by 15 min of maximal-effort cycling. Heart rate and rectal temperature were similar until the final 15 min, when these responses and exercise intensity were higher with CAF+CE than with CE and P. Sweat rate, urine output, plasma-volume losses, serum electrolytes, and blood deuterium-oxide accumulation were not different. Serum osmolality was higher with CAF+CE vs. P but not CE. The authors conclude that CAF+CE appears as rapidly in blood as CE and maintains hydration and sustains cardiovascular and thermoregulatory function as well as CE during exercise in a warm, humid environment.
G. Patrick Lambert, Timothy L. Bleiler, Ray-Tai Chang, Alan K. Johnson and Carl V. Gisolfi
Eight male runners performed four 2-hr treadmill runs at 65% ~ 0 , m a x in the heat (35"C, 15-20% RH). A different beverage was offered each trial and subjects drank ad libitum for 2 min every 20 min. The beverages were, 6% carbohydrate (CHO) solution (NC 6), 6% carbonated-CHO solution (C 6), 10% CHO solution (NC 10), and 10% carbonated-CHO solution (C 10). NC 6 and C 6 contained 4% sucrose and 2% glucose. NC 10 and C 10 contained high fructose corn syrup. Subjects drank more NC 6 than C 6. Fluid consumption was not different among other trials. During all trials, volume consumed and %ΔPV declined while heart rate and rectal temperature increased (p<0.05). No significant differences occurred between beverages for these variables. Percent body weight lost was greater (p<0.05) for the C 10 trial compared to the NC 6 trial. Neither sweat rate, percent fluid replaced, plasma [Na+], [K+], osmolality, percent of drink volume emptied from the stomach, or glucose concentration differed among trials. Plasma [K+] and osmolality increased (p<0.05) over time. Ratings of fullness and thirst were not different among beverages, although both perceptions increased (p<0.05) with time. It is concluded that (a) carbonation decreased the consumption of the 6% CHO beverage; (b) fluid homeostasis and thermoregulation were unaffected by the solutions ingested; and (c) fluid consumption decreased with time, while ratings of fullness and thirst increased.
John B. Leiper and Ron J. Maughan
Total body water (TBW) and water turnover rates (WTR) of 8 competitive swimmers (SW) and 6 age-matched non-training individuals (CON) were determined using deuterium oxide dilution and elimination. During the 7-day study, individuals in the SW group trained 9 times, swimming on average 42.4 km, while the CON group did no regular exercise. Water temperature in the swimming pool was between 26 and 29 °C during training sessions. Body mass at the beginning and end of the study period remained essentially the same in the SW (67.8 ± 6.3 kg) and CON (61.1 ± 8.5 kg) groups. Mean ± SD TBW of the SW (38.7 ± 5.6 L) was similar to that of the CON (37.5 ± 8:0 L). Mean WTR was faster in the SW (54 ± 18 ml · kg · day−1) than the CON (28 ± 21 ml · kg · day−1). Mean daily urine output was similar in the SW (14 ± 5 ml · kg · day−1) and CON (14 ± 3 ml · kg · day−1). Calculated non-renal daily water loss was faster in the SW (41 ± 21 ml · kg · day−1) than the CON (13 ± 20 ml · kg · day−1). This study demonstrates that WTR are faster in young swimmers who exercise strenuously in cool water than in non-training individuals and that the difference was due to the approximately 3-times greater non-renal water losses that the exercising group incurred. This suggests that exercise-induced increases in sweat rates are a major factor in water loss in swimmers training in cool water.
Matthew Zimmermann, Grant Landers, Karen E. Wallman and Jacinta Saldaris
This study examined the physiological effects of crushed ice ingestion before steady state exercise in the heat. Ten healthy males with age (23 ± 3 y), height (176.9 ± 8.7 cm), body-mass (73.5 ± 8.0 kg), VO2peak (48.5 ± 3.6 mL∙kg∙min-1) participated in the study. Participants completed 60 min of cycling at 55% of their VO2peak preceded by 30 min of precooling whereby 7 g∙kg-1 of thermoneutral water (CON) or crushed ice (ICE) was ingested. The reduction in Tc at the conclusion of precooling was greater in ICE (-0.9 ± 0.3 °C) compared with CON (-0.2 ± 0.2 °C) (p ≤ .05). Heat storage capacity was greater in ICE compared with CON after precooling (ICE -29.3 ± 4.8 W∙m-2; CON -11.1 ± 7.3 W∙m-2, p < .05). Total heat storage was greater in ICE compared with CON at the end of the steady state cycle (ICE 62.0 ± 12.5 W∙m-2; CON 49.9 ± 13.4 W∙m-2, p < .05). Gross efficiency was higher in ICE compared with CON throughout the steady state cycle (ICE 21.4 ± 1.8%; CON 20.4 ± 1.9%, p < .05). Ice ingestion resulted in a lower thermal sensation at the end of precooling and a lower sweat rate during the initial stages of cycling (p < .05). Sweat loss, respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion and thirst were similar between conditions (p > .05). Precooling with crushed ice led to improved gross efficiency while cycling due to an increased heat storage capacity, which was the result of a lower core temperature.