systematically excluded from the team sport context ( Messner, 2002 ). Homonegative language was also brought up in relation to the possibility of having a gay teammate. Patrice said that if he had an openly gay teammate, his language would change: Like, I wouldn’t say the word “gay” and things like that
Stephen D. Ross
Despite the general understanding that spectator sport is a service-oriented product, sport brand equity research has overwhelmingly relied on models pertaining to physical goods and has been slow to acknowledge service marketing principles and the unique characteristics of team sport in understanding this topic. This article proposes a framework for the development of spectator-based brand equity by which the characteristics of spectator sports are recognized through organization, market, and experience-induced antecedents that contribute to spectator-based brand equity. It is suggested that the key components of brand equity for spectator sports consist of brand awareness and brand associations, and the result of these components is revealed in a set of consequences contributing to the value of a sport brand.
Joel Maxcy and Michael Mondello
Free agency was reintroduced to professional team sport leagues in the 1970s. Sport enthusiasts expressed concern that competitive balance would diminish as star players congregated to large market cities. However, the economic invariance principle rejects this notion, indicating that balance should remain unchanged. This article empirically examines the effects of changes in free agent rules on competitive balance over time in the National Basketball Association (NBA), National Football League (NFL), and National Hockey League (NHL). Regression analysis using within-season and between-season measures of competitive balance as dependent variables provides mixed results. The NFL and NHL provide evidence that an aspect of competitive balance has improved, but results from the NBA indicate that balance has worsened since the introduction of free agency. We conclude that the ambiguous results suggest that the effects are not independent, but instead depend on the interaction of free agent rights with other labor market and league rules.
Sheri J. Brock, Jared A. Russell, Brenna Cosgrove and Jessica Richards
The School of Kinesiology at Auburn University has a large Physical Activity and Wellness Program (PAWP) that services approximately 8,000 students each academic year. The roughly 470 courses offered annually include aquatics, leisure, martial arts, fitness, and individual- and team-sport offerings taught predominantly by graduate teaching assistants. Overall, Auburn University has experienced a great deal of success in providing a PAWP program that students enjoy and often wish to repeat although these courses are not required as compulsory credit. Delivering high-quality undergraduate educational experiences is paramount to the overall instructional mission of the School of Kinesiology. This paper outlines administrative strategies to ensure that PAWP instructors are prepared and supported in their instructional responsibilities.
James M. Gladden, Richard L. Irwin and William A. Sutton
Following a decade that produced astonishing player salaries, continued player mobility, widespread corporate involvement, and skyrocketing ticket prices and broadcast rights fees, North American major league professional sport teams enter the 21st century encountering a number of significant challenges. An analysis of the aforementioned trends yields valuable insight into the future of professional team sport management in North America and leads to the identification of a primary concern of team owners and operators, that of managing the franchise's brand equity. With team owners increasingly reaping profits from the long-term appreciation of the team's value while continuing to lose money on a yearly basis, there will be an increased focus on strengthening team brands. This new focus will lead management to build and maintain brand equity through two primary means: the acquisition of assets and the enhancement of customer relationships. Each of these predictions is explained in depth in this paper and examples are provided.
Nico Schulenkorf and Deborah Edwards
Building on the evidence of social impacts generated by sport events, there is a need for research to identify strategies suitable for maximizing event benefits for disparate interest communities. This paper investigates the opportunities and strategic means for sustaining and leveraging social event benefits arising from intercommunity sport events in the ethnically divided Sri Lanka. Following an interpretive mode of inquiry, findings are derived from the analysis of two focus groups and 35 in-depth interviews with Sinhalese, Tamil, Muslim and international event stakeholders. To maximize event benefits, findings suggest that event organizers and host communities focus strategically on children as catalysts for change; increase ethnically mixed team sport activities; provide event-related sociocultural opportunities; combine large-scale events with regular sport-for-development programs; and engage in social, cultural, political and educational event leverage. By implementing these strategies and tactics, intercommunity sport events are likely to contribute to local capacity building and inclusive social change, which can have flow-on effects to the wider community. These findings extend the academic literature on strategic event planning, management and leverage, as they provide a focus on community event leverage for social purposes in a developing world context—an area which has thus far received limited empirical research.
Colin D. McLaren and Kevin S. Spink
and Short ( 2011 ) recognize that their sport measure of communication—as assessed through the Revised Scale for Effective Communication in Team Sport (SECTS-2)—uses a social lens and that member communication also could be considered for its cognitive properties (i.e., information exchange; Eccles
Daniel Maderer, Petros Parganas and Christos Anagnostopoulos
Organizations, 28 ( 5 ), 2224 – 2250 . doi:10.1007/s11266-016-9802-4 10.1007/s11266-016-9802-4 Anagnostopoulos , C. , Parganas , P. , Chadwick , S. , & Fenton , A. ( 2018 ). Branding in pictures: Using Instagram as a brand management tool in professional team sport organizations . European Sport
website. The results suggest attitudes toward the site predicted time on the VFC and time spent on the site increased online interaction. Differences were also uncovered between nonsubscribers and subscribers. In all, VFCs have become increasingly important touch-points for team sport fans, and the
Bastian Popp, Chris Horbel and Claas Christian Germelmann
context of team sport—more specifically in European football. (We use the term football throughout this paper when referring to soccer.) Adopting a social-identity-theory approach ( Tajfel & Turner, 1979 ), this research aimed to study how antisponsor communities influence football fans and their self