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Daheia J. Barr-Anderson, Ramona Robinson-O’Brien, Jess Haines, Peter Hannan and Dianne Neumark-Sztainer

Background:

Parent-report and child perception of familial support for weight-related behaviors may not be congruent. This research explores whether parent-report or child perception is more strongly associated with child-reported physical activity and television (TV) use.

Methods:

Elementary school children (n = 73) participating in Ready. Set. ACTION!, a theater-based obesity prevention pilot program in Saint Paul, MN, and their parents completed surveys assessing familial support for physical activity and limitations on TV use in fall 2006. Paired t tests examined congruency between parent-report and child perception. Linear regression models adjusted for sociodemographics explored the associations between familial support and child-reported behavior.

Results:

Levels of agreement between parent-report and child perception for support for physical activity and limitations on TV use were approximately 70%. Compared with parent-report for physical activity support, child perception was more strongly associated with child physical activity (β = .17, P = .02). Neither parent-report nor child perception for support for limitations on TV use was associated with child TV use.

Discussion:

Although parent-report and child perception of familial support for physical activity and to limit TV use were similar, child perception was more strongly associated with child physical activity behavior. More research, probably qualitative, is needed to examine how parents and children define and perceive parental support.

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Kelly R. Laurson, Joey A. Lee and Joey C. Eisenmann

Background:

Physical activity (PA), television time (TV), and sleep duration (SLP) are considered individual risk factors for adolescent obesity. Our aim was to investigate the concurrent influence of meeting PA, SLP, and TV recommendations on adolescent obesity utilizing 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBSS) data.

Methods:

Subjects included 9589 (4874 females) high school students. PA, SLP, and TV were categorized utilizing established national recommendations and youth were cross-tabulated into 1 of 8 groups based on meeting or not meeting each recommendation. Logistic models were used to examine the odds of obesity for each group. Results: Youth meeting the PA recommendation were not at increased odds of obesity, regardless of SLP or TV status. However, not meeting any single recommendation, in general, led to increased odds of not meeting the other two. In boys, 11.8% met all recommendations while 14.1% met 0 recommendations. In girls, only 5.0% met all recommendations while 17.8% met none.

Conclusions:

Boys and girls not meeting any of the recommendations were 4.0 and 3.8 times more likely to be obese compared with their respective referent groups. Further research considering the simultaneous influence these risk factors may have on obesity and on one another is warranted.

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Xin Zhong, Shuhua Zhou and Guosong Shao

This article moves away from content-oriented studies on Olympics coverage by focusing on the producers of Olympic images. The study first explicates the concept of professionalism and the objectives of Olympics coverage. A survey questionnaire was designed accordingly to measure a sample of the Chinese professionals who were part of the production team of the international TV signal for the Beijing Olympics. Results indicated that the production professionals were well prepared and were in line with Olympic ideals. Less clear-cut were the concepts of motion and emotion in Olympic coverage. Implications are discussed.

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L. Marlene Mawson and William T. Bowler III

The 1984 Supreme Court ruling in the antitrust suit between the Universities of Oklahoma and Georgia, representing the College Football Association (CFA), versus the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) provided mat individual institutions had proper authority to sell television rights to their football games. The NCAA had controlled television appearances of collegiate football teams with the rationale of preventing erosion of game attendance due to televised home football games. Records of home games televised, television revenues from football games, and attendance at televised football games were gathered from 57% of NCAA Division I institutions and compared for a 3-year period prior to the 1984 ruling, with a 3-year period following the ruling. Four sets oft tests between mean data for the pre- and posttime periods showed that although the number of games scheduled per season remained the same, the number of televised football games significantly increased, the television revenues from football remained constant, and attendance at televised home football games decreased significantly after the 1984 ruling.

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Ellen De Decker, Kylie Hesketh, Marieke De Craemer, Trina Hinkley, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Jo Salmon and Greet Cardon

Background:

Television viewing is highly prevalent in preschoolers (3–5 years). Because of the adverse health outcomes related to this behavior, it is important to investigate associations and mediators of young children’s television viewing time. This study investigated whether parental rules regarding television viewing time and parental concerns about screen viewing activities mediated the association between parents’ and preschoolers’ television viewing time.

Methods:

Mediation analyses were performed with the product-of-coefficient test on data derived from the Australian HAPPY study (n = 947) and the Belgian sample of the ToyBox-study (n = 1527). Parents reported their own and their child’s television viewing time, their rules regarding television viewing and concerns about their child’s screen viewing activities.

Results:

Parents’ television viewing time was directly associated with preschoolers’ television viewing time and parental rule for television viewing time mediated this association in both samples (14.4% and 8.1% in the Australian and Belgian samples, respectively).

Conclusions:

This study is unique in examining the mediating pathway of parental television viewing and a rule limiting TV viewing time and whether this is consistent in different samples. Due to the consistent importance, both parents’ television viewing time and rules should be targeted in interventions to decrease preschoolers’ television viewing time.

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Juha Yoon and Alex Chinhoo Gang

Olympic sport. Lee-Kyung Chun —(center) — Legendary Olympian, Olympic coach, and television commentator (with the authors). Chun was only 12 years of age when she received her first nomination to the national short-track team to represent her country. At 16 she made her Olympic debut at the 1992

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Jorge Mota, José Carlos Ribeiro, Joana Carvalho, Maria Paula Santos and Júlio Martins

The aim of this study was twofold (1), to examine the prospective relationship of baseline TV viewing with BMI and CRF both at baseline and over a 2-year period, and (2) to examine the prospective relationship of baseline TV viewing and changes (Δ) on BMI and CRF over a 2-year period. Data were collected in a sample of 135 (64 girls) rural children ages 7 yr-old from elementary schools in Fundao, Portugal. Obesity status was obtained by the age-sex specific BMI cut points and CRF by a 9 min run test. TV viewing was also analyzed and children were assigned as one of two groups: the low TV watching (LTV), and high TV watching (HTV), users based upon them reported to spend less or more than 2 h/day watching TV, respectively. Logistic regression showed that those who were assigned to HTV group were 2.4 times (OR = 2.48; p = .04) more likely to be classified as unfit at time 1. Further the data showed that the LTV were more likely (OR = 0.36; p = .02) to be classified in high ΔCRF change over time. The findings of this study suggest that there was a significant inverse association between times spent watching TV and CRF but not BMI over a 2-yr period.

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Bethany Barone Gibbs, Wendy C. King, Kelliann K. Davis, Amy D. Rickman, Renee J. Rogers, Abdus Wahed, Steven H. Belle and John Jakicic

Background:

Sedentary behavior (SED) has been measured almost exclusively by self-reported total SED or television time in longitudinal studies. This manuscript aimed to compare self-reported vs. objectively measured SED.

Methods:

Among overweight and obese young adults enrolled in a weight loss trial, baseline SED was assessed by 3 methods: 1) a questionnaire assessing 8 common SEDs (SEDQ), 2) 1 question assessing SED from the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (SEDGPAQ), and 3) a monitor worn on the arm (SEDOBJ). In addition, television time (SEDTV) was isolated from the SEDQ. SED measures were compared using Spearman’s correlations, signed-rank tests, and Bland-Altman plots.

Results:

In 448 participants, SEDQ and SEDGPAQ were only weakly associated with SEDOBJ (rs = 0.21; P < .001, rs = 0.32; P < .001, respectively). Compared with SEDOBJ, SEDQ more often overestimated SEDOBJ (median difference: 1.1 hours/day; P < .001), while SEDGPAQ more often underestimated SEDOBJ (median difference: –0.7 hours/day; P < .001). The correlation between SEDTV and SEDOBJ was not significantly different from 0 (rs = 0.08; P = .08).

Conclusions:

SEDQ and SEDGPAQ were weakly correlated with, and significantly different from, SEDOBJ in overweight and obese young adults. SEDTV was not related to SEDOBJ. The poor associations of self-reported and objectively measured SED could affect interpretation and comparison across studies relating SED to adverse health outcomes.

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Choong Hoon Lim, Tywan G. Martin and Dae Hee Kwak

The current study employs the hedonic paradigm model (Hirschman & Holbrook, 1982) to investigate the interceding function of emotions on the relationship between personality (i.e., risk taking) and attitude toward mixed martial arts. This study also examines sport-media (e.g., television) consumption of a nontraditional sport. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the proposed model incorporating risk taking, pleasure, arousal, attitude, and actual consumption behavior. The study found a significant mediation effect of emotion (pleasure and arousal) in the relationship between risk taking and attitude. In addition, attitude showed a direct and significant influence on actual media-consumption behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed, along with future directions for research.

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Richard Lowry, Sarah M. Lee, Janet E. Fulton and Laura Kann

Background:

To help inform policies and programs, a need exists to understand the extent to which Healthy People 2010 objectives for physical activity, physical education (PE), and television (TV) viewing among adolescents are being achieved.

Methods:

As part of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, 5 national school-based surveys were conducted biennially from 1999 through 2007. Each survey used a 3-stage cross-sectional sample of students in grades 9 to 12 and provided self-reported data from approximately 14,000 students. Logistic regression models that controlled for sex, race/ethnicity, and grade were used to analyze secular trends.

Results:

During 1999 to 2007, prevalence estimates for regular participation in moderate and vigorous physical activity, participation in daily PE classes, and being physically active in PE classes did not change significantly among female, male, white, black, or Hispanic students. In contrast, the prevalence of TV viewing for 2 or fewer hours on a school day increased significantly among female, male, white, black, and Hispanic students and among students in every grade except 12th grade.

Conclusions:

Among US adolescents, no significant progress has been made toward increasing participation in physical activity or school PE classes; however, improvements have been made in reducing TV viewing time.