al., 2018 ). Having strong theoretical underpinnings is important for public health and behavior change interventions in order to understand, address, and report factors that will be most successful in mediating behavior change in a systematic and evidence-based way. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has
Valerie Senkowski, Clara Gannon and Paul Branscum
John H. Kerr
In this article, the basic postulates of reversal theory are described, and the potential of the theory for professional practice in sport psychology is clarified. At focus is the reversal theory approach to athlete problem assessment (especially reversal process problems), intervention treatment and strategies, and the behavior of the successful therapist towards the athlete. Reversal theory’s comprehensive conceptual model, together with applications of the theory in psychotherapy, are used to support arguments for an eclectic but systematic approach to intervention work with sport performers.
Jeremy Hapeta, Rochelle Stewart-Withers and Farah Palmer
This article seeks to make higher level contributions to the nexus between theory and practice within sport for social change by shining light on Indigenous theory and practice in Aotearoa New Zealand (NZ). First, we acknowledge the forward and timely thinking of this special issue for providing
Samantha M. Gray, Joan Wharf Higgins and Ryan E. Rhodes
, as it is often a necessary ingredient for behavior change ( Hagger & Chatzisarantis, 2008 ; Linke, Robinson, & Pekmezi, 2013 ). There is extensive literature on human motivation ( Ajzen, 1991 ; Clemow, 2008 ; Ryan & Deci, 2000 ) in which one prominent framework is self-determination theory (SDT
Emily Cole, Terry M. Wood and John M. Dunn
Tests constructed using item response theory (IRT) produce invariant item and test parameters, making it possible to construct tests and test items useful over many populations. This paper heuristically and empirically compares the utility of classical test theory (CTT) and IRT using psychomotor skill data. Data from the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD) (Ulrich, 1985) were used to assess the feasibility of fitting existing IRT models to dichotomously scored psychomotor skill data. As expected, CTT and IRT analyses yielded parallel interpretations of item and subtest difficulty and discrimination. However, IRT provided significant additional analysis of the error associated with estimating examinee ability. The IRT two-parameter logistic model provided a superior model fit to the one-parameter logistic model. Although both TGMD subtests estimated ability for examinees of low to average ability, the object control subtest estimated examinee ability more precisely at higher difficulty levels than the locomotor subtest. The results suggest that IRT is particularly well suited to construct tests that can meet the challenging measurement demands of adapted physical education.
Joan L. Duda
The purpose of this paper is to review Nicholls' developmentally based theory of achievement motivation and apply this perspective to children's sport. Five areas of research are reviewed that support the relevance of Nicholls' theory to the sport domain. Based on Nicholls' framework, several considerations are presented for future research on the development of achievement motivation in sport.
Walter E. Davis and Allen W. Burton
A new approach to task analysis is presented based upon an ecological theory of perception and current motor development and control theories. The ecological task analysis (ETA) approach stands in sharp contrast to more traditional approaches and offers procedures equally applicable to instruction and assessment of movement performance as well as to applied research. The strengths of the ETA approach lie in (a) its grounding in current motor development and control theories, (b) its linking of the task requirements, environmental conditions, and performer characteristics, (c) its application of a functional and dynamic approach to instruction and assessment, and (d) its integration of instruction and assessment procedures. Following a discussion of the traditional approach and ecological theory, four concepts are presented that emanate from Gibson’s theory of affordances. From these concepts ETA procedures are derived. Applied research questions relating to task analysis are also implied from the ecological approach and are presented in the final section.
The purpose of the paper is to provide specialists with theoretical frameworks that can be used to guide the creation of physical activity interventions as well as facilitating participation for people with traumatic brain injuries. Two frameworks for examining the physical activity motivation of people with brain injuries are presented. The theories include Bandura’s (1986) self-efficacy theory and Harter’s (1987) mediational model of self-worth. The constructs within both theories are explained and then applied to people with brain injuries. Suggestions for practitioners are also provided about how to manipulate the physical activity environment to promote physical activity participation.
Catherine Quatman and Packianathan Chelladurai
As an emerging research approach, social network theory and analysis has been embraced and effectively applied in disciplines that have overlapping interests with sport management researchers including such fields as organizational behavior and sport sociology. Although a number of sport management scholars have investigated network-related concepts, to date no sport management studies have fully utilized the analytical tools that social network theory and analysis have to offer. In conjunction with a discussion about the ontological, epistemological, and methodological perspectives associated with network analysis, this article uses several examples from the sport management and organizational behavior bodies of literature to illustrate a number of the advantageous techniques and insights social network theory and analysis can offer. These examples are meant to provide a general understanding of the utility and applicability of the social network theory and analysis and potentially inspire sport management researchers to adopt a social network lens in their future research endeavors.
Ashley E. Stirling
Coach education is the key to improved coaching. In order for coach education initiatives to be effective though, the conceptualization of those initiatives must be developed based on empirical learning theory. It is suggested that Kolb’s theory of experiential learning may be an appropriate learning theory to apply to coach education. This paper outlines how Kolb’s theory of experiential learning was used in the development of Canada’s National Coaching Certification Program coach education module entitled “Empower +: Creating Positive and Healthy Sport Experiences.” The module is summarized briefly, and Kolb’s six key tenets of experiential learning are reviewed. Applications of each tenet within the coach education module are highlighted, and recommendations are made for future evaluation and research.