traditional uniforms, that is, leather shoes with shirts and pants for boys, and a dress, tunic, or skirt, and a shirt with leather shoes and socks or stockings for girls. A 2012 qualitative study of 54 primary school children from 6 schools in South Australia found that girls reported their uniform
Nicole McCarthy, Kirsty Hope, Rachel Sutherland, Elizabeth Campbell, Rebecca Hodder, Luke Wolfenden and Nicole Nathan
Harry G. Banyard, James J. Tufano, Jose Delgado, Steve W. Thompson and Kazunori Nosaka
, no studies have compared VBT to more traditional PBT methods. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the effects of the LVP, FS VL , VS VL , and PBT methods on the mechanical capacities of the lower body during a typical strength-oriented training session in a free-weight exercise
This research explored how press outlets and fans framed professional golfer Tiger Woods’s marital infidelity. A textual analysis of newspaper reports and discussion postings on Tiger Woods’s official Facebook page was conducted. Analysis revealed that press accounts framed Woods’s actions as a tragic flaw that precipitated his fall from grace, while also reveling in the salacious details of the extramarital affairs. Conversely, fans primarily framed these incidents as private matters that demonstrated Woods’s human nature. The analysis suggests that social-media sites are valuable public relations tools that athletes can use to quickly generate support that counteracts perceived negative media framing. Social-media sites also enable fans to enhance perceptions of closeness with athletes as fans interject themselves into athletes’ media narratives.
This paper presents a case study of a physical education program for troubled youth attending an adolescent treatment center. The site selected for study was deliberately chosen due to the alternative nature of the physical education program and its apparent success in helping to connect students to their school environment. The researcher, as bricoleur, used a variety of methodological tools and strategies to collect data that corresponded to the study’s entry question: How does the physical education program work? Constructed from the data is the story of a gymnasium culture that has been carefully crafted to promote physically and psychologically safe participation that is fair and flexible, where students are encouraged to play just for fun, and a lack of competence is positioned as an opportunity to learn. By incorporating the theoretical framework of the “Circle of Courage” (Brendtro, Brokenleg, & Van Bockern, 1998) into the data analysis, this paper is intended to show how physical education can provide a reclaiming versus alienating learning environment for young people.
Hilde Lohne-Seiler, Monica K. Torstveit and Sigmund A. Anderssen
The aim was to determine whether strength training with machines vs. functional strength training at 80% of one-repetition maximum improves muscle strength and power among the elderly. Sixty-three subjects (69.9 ± 4.1 yr) were randomized to a high-power strength group (HPSG), a functional strength group (FSG), or a nonrandomized control group (CG). Data were collected using a force platform and linear encoder. The training dose was 2 times/wk, 3 sets × 8 reps, for 11 wk. There were no differences in effect between HPSG and FSG concerning sit-to-stand power, box-lift power, and bench-press maximum force. Leg-press maximum force improved in HPSG (19.8%) and FSG (19.7%) compared with CG (4.3%; p = .026). Bench-press power improved in HPSG (25.1%) compared with FSG (0.5%, p = .02) and CG (2%, p = .04). Except for bench-press power there were no differences in the effect of the training interventions on functional power and maximal body strength.
Stephanie M. Mazerolle, Emily Sterling and Jim Mench
Women athletic trainers leave the profession of athletic training after the age of 28. The reasons appear complex, but are not well defined in the literature, as many studies examine intent, not actual attrition. We used a descriptive qualitative study with a general inductive approach. Twelve females (4 single with no children, 5 married with children, and 3 married with no children) who left the profession of athletic training between the ages of 28 and 35 participated. Attrition from athletic training for our participants was triggered by organizational, individual, and sociocultural factors. These can be broken down to four main themes of family values, work-life imbalance, sexism, and financial concerns.
Radim Jurca, Michael J. LaMonte and J. Larry Durstine
Erika Zemková, Michal Jeleň, Zuzana Kovác̆iková, Gábor Ollé, Tomáš Vilman and Dušan Hamar
The study evaluates the effect of weight lifted on power in the concentric phase of resistance exercises on stable and unstable surfaces. A group of 19 fit men performed randomly on different days 3 reps of (a) barbell chest presses on the bench and Swiss ball, and (b) barbell squats on stable base and BOSU ball. Exercises were performed without and with countermovement (CM) using maximal effort in concentric phase. Initial weight of 20 kg was increased by 10 kg or 5 kg (at higher loads) up to at least 85% of previously established 1RM under stable conditions. Results showed no significant differences in mean power in the concentric phase of stable and unstable CM chest presses at lower weights lifted (from 20 to 50 kg). However, its values were significantly higher during chest presses on the bench than on Swiss ball while lifting higher weights (from 60 to 90 kg). Similarly, mean power in the concentric phase of squats was significantly higher on stable base than on BOSU ball at higher weights lifted (from 60 to 90 kg). Though a set of data showed significant differences, the effect sizes ≤ 0.7 suggest no practically meaningful differences. It may be concluded that unstable base compromises the power in the concentric phase of resistance exercises, however, only at higher weights lifted.
Edward M. Kian and Marie Hardin
This study examined effects of the sex of sports writers on the framing of athletes in print-media coverage of intercollegiate men’s and women’s basketball tournaments. The number of articles by female and male authors and the frames used were analyzed. Descriptors of players, coaches, and both tournaments in articles from CBS SportsLine, ESPN Internet, The New York Times, and USA Today were coded with the authors’ names initially hidden. Results showed that female journalists were more apt to cover women’s basketball, and men predominantly wrote about men’s basketball. The sex of writers also influenced the ways female and male athletes were presented. Male writers were more likely to reinforce gender stereotypes by praising the athleticism of male athletes. In contrast, female writers more often framed female athletes for their athletic prowess. The results suggest that female sports writers can make some difference in framing, but institutional structures minimize their impact.