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T. Nicole Kirk and Justin A. Haegele

, & Craven, 2004 ; Martin Ginis, Papathomas, Perrier, Smith, & Shape-Sci Research Group 2017 ). Populations of individuals with visual impairments and developmental coordination disorder were each the subject of one study. The final three studies contained samples from various disability populations. Two of

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Karin Lobenius-Palmér, Birgitta Sjöqvist, Anita Hurtig-Wennlöf and Lars-Olov Lundqvist

recommendations, accelerometer studies comparing habitual PA variables (e.g., average PA or MVPA) between youth with disabilities and youth with TD also show a pattern of varying results. That is, youth with cerebral palsy as well as youth with visual impairment were found to be less physically active than youth

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Davy Vancampfort, Brendon Stubbs, Mats Hallgren, Andreas Lundin, James Mugisha and Ai Koyanagi

, Koyanagi, Thompson, et al., 2016 ). Fall-related injuries in the past 12 months were assessed with questions on the presence of bodily injury and cause ( Stewart Williams et al., 2015 ). The participant was considered to have hearing problems if the interviewer observed this condition. Visual impairment

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Daniel P. Joaquim, Claudia R. Juzwiak and Ciro Winckler

Functional Classification and Sex Functional classification Male ( n  = 13) Female ( n  = 7) Sprinters VI T11, T12, and T13 7 6 LD T47 3 – CP T36, T37, and T38 3 1 Note . VI = visual impairment; LD = limb deficiency; CP = cerebral palsy. Athletes with limb deficiency had upper limb amputations: (a

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Christopher Ray, Michael Horvat, Michael Williams and Bruce Blasch

The purpose of this investigation was to assess movement capabilities of adults with visual impairments in comparison to sighted peers. Thirty participants (n = 15 visually impaired; n = 15 without vision loss) were age and gender matched and assesed on three functional movement measures. A Walk Across, Forward Lunge, and Sit to Stand were completed on a long force plate and analyzed using Group MANOVAs. Individuals with visual impairment were more cautious and conservative in their movement as evident by signifigantly reduced performance on both the Walk Across assessment and the Forward Lunge task. Performance between groups was similar on the Sit to Stand manuver. It was concluded that individuals with visual impairments are more cautious and have more difficulty performing tasks when their center of gravity is outside of their base of support.

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James V. Mastro, Allen W. Burton, Marjorie Rosendahl and Claudine Sherrill

Hierarchies of preference by elite athletes with impairments toward other athletes with impairments were examined by administering the Athletes With Impairments Attitude Survey (AWIAS) to 138 members of the United States Disabled Sports Team as they were traveling to the 1992 Paralympic Games. The AWIAS uses 12 statements concerning social and sport relationships to measure social distance from a particular impairment group. Five groups of athletes participated—athletes with amputations, cerebral palsy, dwarfism or les autres, paraplegia or quadriplegia, and visual impairment—with each participant filling out a separate survey for the four impairment groups other than his or her own. For all groups combined, the participants’ responses toward other impairment groups, ordered from most to least favorable attitudes, were amputations, les autres, para/quadriplegia, visual impairment, and cerebral palsy. The preference hierarchies for individual groups were very similar to this overall pattern.

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Francis X. Short and Joseph P. Winnick

This manuscript provides information on the rationale for the selection of the muscular strength and endurance test items associated with the Brockport Physical Fitness Test for youngsters with mental retardation and mild limitations in fitness, visual impairment (blindness), cerebral palsy, spinal cord injury, or congenital anomalies or amputations. Information on the validity, attainability, and reliability of the 16 tests and their criterion-referenced standards is provided. Suggestions are made for future research.

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Joseph P. Winnick

The relative performance of individuals with visual handicapping conditions in physical education is directly or indirectly associated with severity of visual impairment, gender, age, activity type, method of ambulation, and parental attitudes. Each of these influences success, extent, and/or nature of participation in physical activity, which in turn results in characteristics, limitations, abilities, and needs that must be considered in order to effectively implement physical education programs in mainstreamed settings. Several implications for mainstreaming based on research pertaining to these factors are presented.