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Ricardo A. Tanhoffer, Aldre I. P. Tanhoffer, Jacqueline Raymond, Andrew P. Hills and Glen M Davis

Background:

The objective of this study was to verify the long-term effects of exercise on energy expenditure and body composition in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), as very little information is available on this population under free-living conditions.

Methods:

Free-living energy expenditure and body composition using doubly labeled water (DLW) was measured in 13 individuals with SCI, subdivided in 2 groups: (1) sedentary (SED; N = 7) and (2) regularly engaged in any exercise program, for at least 150 min·wk−1 (EXE; N = 6).

Results:

The total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) was significantly higher in the EXE group (33 ± 4.5 kcal·kg−1·day−1) if compared with SED group (27 ± 4.3 kcal·kg−1·day−1). The percentage of body fat was significantly higher in SED group than in EXE group (38 ± 6% and 28 ± 9%).

Conclusion:

Our findings revealed that, despite the severity of SCI, the actual ACSM’s guidelines for weight management for healthy adults exercise could significantly increase TDEE and BMR and improve body composition in individuals who regularly perform exercise. However, the EXE group still showed a high percentage of body fat, suggesting that a more specific approach might be considered (ie, increased intensity or volume, or combining with a diet program).

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Shaea A. Alkahtani, Nuala M. Byrne, Andrew P. Hills and Neil A. King

Purpose:

Compensatory responses may attenuate the effectiveness of exercise training in weight management. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of moderate- and high-intensity interval training on eating behavior compensation.

Methods:

Using a crossover design, 10 overweight and obese men participated in 4-week moderate (MIIT) and high (HIIT) intensity interval training. MIIT consisted of 5-min cycling stages at ±20% of mechanical work at 45%VO2peak, and HIIT consisted of alternate 30-s work at 90%VO2peak and 30-s rests, for 30 to 45 min. Assessments included a constant-load exercise test at 45%VO2peak for 45 min followed by 60-min recovery. Appetite sensations were measured during the exercise test using a Visual Analog Scale. Food preferences (liking and wanting) were assessed using a computer-based paradigm, and this paradigm uses 20 photographic food stimuli varying along two dimensions, fat (high or low) and taste (sweet or nonsweet). An ad libitum test meal was provided after the constant-load exercise test.

Results:

Exerciseinduced hunger and desire to eat decreased after HIIT, and the difference between MIIT and HIIT in desire to eat approached significance (p = .07). Exercise-induced liking for high-fat nonsweet food tended to increase after MIIT and decreased after HIIT (p = .09). Fat intake decreased by 16% after HIIT, and increased by 38% after MIIT, with the difference between MIIT and HIIT approaching significance (p = .07).

Conclusions:

This study provides evidence that energy intake compensation differs between MIIT and HIIT.

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Cheryl A. Howe, Marcus W. Barr, Brett C. Winner, Jenelynn R. Kimble and Jason B. White

Background:

Although promoted for weight loss, especially in young adults, it has yet to be determined if the physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and intensity of the newest active video games (AVGs) qualifies as moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; > 3.0 METs). This study compared the PAEE and intensity of AVGs to traditional seated video games (SVGs).

Methods:

Fifty-three young adults (18−35 y; 27 females) volunteered to play 6 video games (4 AVGs, 2 SVGs). Anthropometrics and resting metabolism were measured before testing. While playing the games (6−10 min) in random order against a playmate, the participants wore a portable metabolic analyzer for measuring PAEE (kcal/min) and intensity (METs). A repeated-measures ANOVA compared the PAEE and intensity across games with sex, BMI, and PA status as main effects.

Results:

The intensity of AVGs (6.1 ± 0.2 METs) was significantly greater than SVGs (1.8 ± 0.1 METs). AVGs elicited greater PAEE than SVGs in all participants (5.3 ± 0.2 vs 0.8 ± 0.0 kcal/min); PAEE during the AVGs was greater in males and overweight participants compared with females and healthy weight participants (p’s < .05).

Conclusions:

The newest AVGs do qualify as MVPA and can contribute to the recommended dose of MVPA for weight management in young adults.

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Robert A. Oppliger, Suzanne A. Nelson Steen and James R. Scott

Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the weight management (WM) behaviors of collegiate wrestlers after the implementation of the NCAA’s new weight control rules. Methods: In the fall of 1999, a survey was distributed to 47 college wrestling teams stratified by collegiate division (i.e., I, II, III) and competitive quality. Forty-three teams returned surveys for a total of 741 responses. Comparisons were made using the collegiate division, weight class, and the wrestler’s competitive winning percentage. Results: The most weight lost during the season was 5.3 kg ± 2.8 kg (mean ± SD) or 6.9% ± 4.7% of the wrestler’s weight; weekly weight lost averaged 2.9 kg ± 1.3 kg or 4.3% ± 2.3% of the wrestler’s weight; post-season, the average wrestler regained 5.5 kg ± 3.6 kg or 8.6% ± 5.4% of their weight. Coaches and fellow wrestlers were the primary influence on weight loss methods; however, 40.2% indicated that the new NCAA rules deterred extreme weight loss behaviors. The primary methods of weight loss reported were gradual dieting (79.4%) and increased exercise (75.2%). However, 54.8% fasted, 27.6% used saunas, and 26.7% used rubber/ plastic suits at least once a month. Cathartics and vomiting were seldom used to lose weight, and only 5 met three or more of the criteria for bulimia nervosa. WM behaviors were more extreme among freshmen, lighter weight classes, and Division II wrestlers. Compared to previous surveys of high school wrestlers, this cohort of wrestlers reported more extreme WM behaviors. However, compared to college wrestlers in the 1980s, weight loss behaviors were less extreme. Conclusions: The WM practices of college wrestlers appeared to have improved compared to wrestlers sampled previously. Forty percent of the wrestlers were influenced by the new NCAA rules and curbed their weight loss practices. Education is still needed, as some wrestlers are still engaging in dangerous WM methods.

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Justine G. Robbeson, Herculina Salome Kruger and Hattie H. Wright

Background:

Modern culture has stereotyped the female body as one that is continually getting thinner. Internalization of the ‘thin’ ideal is partly attributable to the inner ideal to be successful combined with the external pressure imposed by media and others. Many individuals attempt to achieve these ideals by behavior modification that imposes health risks.

Purpose:

To investigate disordered eating (DE) behavior and energy status in female student dancers.

Methods:

Volunteer dancers (n = 26) aged 19.0 (18.0; 21.0) years, matched by controls (n = 26) aged 20.0 (19.0; 21.0) years were recruited. Eating Disorder Inventory-3 (EDI-3) subscales, Three-factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) Cognitive Dietary Restraint (CDR) subscale, and EDI-3 Referral Form behavioral questions assessed DE behavior. Energy status was assessed with a food record and Actiheart monitor.

Results:

Dancers achieved significantly higher scores than controls in all questionnaires, namely: EDI-3 Drive for Thinness [12.0 (3.0; 19.0) vs. 4.5 (2.0; 9.0), p = .023], EDI-3 Body Dissatisfaction [16.0 (10.0; 25.0) vs. 6.5 (3.0; 14.0), p = .004], and TFEQ-CDR [9.0 (2.0; 15.0) vs. 3.0 (3.0; 7.0), p = .032]; dancers used excessive exercise to lose weight (19.2% vs. 0%, c2 = 5.53, p = .019), and had lower energy availability (24% vs. 8%, p < .05) than controls. The average energy balance (EB) was negative for both groups [dancers: EB = -3896 (-5236; -1222) vs. controls: EB = -2639 (-4744; -789) kJ/day].

Conclusions:

Female dancers are at risk for DE behavior and many have suboptimal energy status which may be related to their quest to achieve a more desirable appearance; education on healthy weight management practices is needed.

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12 12 1 1 Weight Management and Weight Loss Strategies of Professional Jockeys Jan M. Moore * Anna F. Timperio * David A. Crawford * Cate M. Burns * David Cameron-Smith * 3 2002 12 12 1 1 1 1 13 13 10.1123/ijsnem.12.1.1 Effect of High and Low Rates of Fluid Intake on Post

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Arya M. Sharma, Donna L. Goodwin and Janice Causgrove Dunn

factors at play in obesity and weight management. His intention is not to stigmatize but to garner support for publicly supported obesity health care as a form of social justice ( Powers & Faden, 2006 ). What Brought You to Your Interest in Obesity? I have been in academic medicine all my life. I trained

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Implications of Weight Management Practices Nura Alwan * Samantha L. Moss * Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale * Ian G. Davies * Kevin Enright * 1 11 2019 29 6 682 689 10.1123/ijsnem.2019-0037 ijsnem.2019-0037 IJSNEM International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 1526-484X 1543-2742 1 11 2019

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* Louis Passfield * James G. Hopker * 13 4 452 458 10.1123/ijspp.2017-0183 ijspp.2017-0183 Weight Management Practices of Australian Olympic Combat Sport Athletes Reid Reale * Gary Slater * Louise M. Burke * 13 4 459 466 10.1123/ijspp.2016-0553 ijspp.2016-0553 Reliability of Wearable Inertial

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Activity Periods Among Older Adults Thorlene Egerton * Sandra G. Brauer * 9 2009 6 6 5 5 644 644 650 650 10.1123/jpah.6.5.644 Interpreting the Physical Activity Guidelines for Health and Weight Management Ross E. Andersen * John M. Jakicic * 9 2009 6 6 5 5 651 651 656 656 10.1123/jpah.6.5.651 Does