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Nico Schulenkorf

For several years, sport-for-development (SFD) programs have been implemented around the world to make a positive difference for disadvantaged or underprivileged communities. Within this context, special events have been used to complement regular development activities to celebrate social, cultural, and sporting achievements. To date, little managerial work has been conducted on the specific contributions that special events can play in the context of ongoing SFD endeavors. In addressing this issue, this paper presents findings from an empirical investigation of a participatory SFD event in the Pacific Islands. Findings suggest that special events can create new interest and excitement for SFD activities, reengage stakeholders to the wider SFD program, leverage partnerships, and provide opportunities to build and shape local management capacity. In discussing these findings, the paper highlights potential positive and negative impacts of special SFD events and provides practical and theoretical implications for SFD program design, management, and leverage.

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Stephanie Cunningham, T. Bettina Cornwell and Leonard V. Coote

Despite the popularity of sponsorship-linked marketing programs, we know little about how firms form sponsorship policies. This article describes a corporate identity-sponsorship policy link and offers empirical support for it via a mixed method research design. Content analysis of 146 Fortune 500 companies’ online sponsorship policies and mission statements is followed by cluster, factor and multinomial regression techniques. Results show that corporate identity, as reflected in mission statements, matters to sponsorship policy. Specifically, companies emphasizing financial success in their mission statements prefer to sponsor individual athletes, education, the environment and health-related activities. Alternatively, companies stressing the importance of employees demonstrate a propensity to sponsor team sports, entertainment, religious, community, charity and business related activities. Reasons for these strategic differences are discussed.

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Timothy D. DeSchriver and Paul E. Jensen

The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between spectator attendance at NCAA Division II football contests and selected determinants by estimating multiple economic demand models. The two primary determinants analyzed were winning percentage and promotional activity. Demand models were estimated using OLS and fixed-effect regression analysis. The results suggested that both current and previous year winning percentages are positively related to attendance. Furthermore, it is shown that the effect of previous season winning on attendance diminishes while the effect of current season winning increases as the season progresses. The results also indicated that promotional activities, the number of enrolled students, and market competition significantly affected attendance. Overall, the demand models explained between 37 and 70 percent of the variation in spectator attendance. The findings of this study may aid Division II athletic administrators who are attempting to increase revenues by attracting additional spectators to small-college football contests.

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Julie Stevens, Anna Lathrop and Cheri Bradish

In response to the recent impact of Generation Y in the sport marketplace, this researach article examines the association between consumer behavior preferences and two segmentation variables, gender and physical activity level, for an adolescent segment (ages 14-17 years) of Canadian Generation Y youth. Questionnaire results from a sample of 1,127 respondents yielded data related to various consumer preferences for sporting goods purchases. These factors include purchase decision making, price, frequency, location, and product features. Results indicate an association among Generation Y, gender, and physical activity level with respect to a number of consumer preferences related to sport footwear, apparel, and equipment. Discussion and implications address how sport marketers might interpret the consumer profile results according to both age and cohort perspectives.

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Jacquelyn Cuneen and M. Joy Sidwell

Gender portrayals in sport-related advertising generally reinforce institutionalized sexism and culturally defined sex-role behaviors. Gender-defining messages in advertising photographs may have an especially profound impact on children because children understand meanings in pictures before they understand meanings in text. The purpose of this study was to analyze gender portrayals contained in advertisements appearing in Sports Illustrated for Kids (SIK) over a 6-year period. Advertisements were coded to determine (a) the total number of advertisements featuring females and males, (b) genders represented as prominent or supporting in advertising portrayals, and (c) gender portrayals in advertisement activities and product types. Content analysis revealed that girls and women were drastically underrepresented as models in SIK advertising and that distinct gender roles were sustained by depicting males in nearly all types of activities and products. Conventional stereotypical relationships between sport and gender were represented in the majority of SIK advertisements.

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P. Chelladurai

Several models of organizational effectiveness are integrated into a comprehensive framework from a viewpoint of organizations as open systems. The multidimensionality of effectiveness is seen as emanating from both the input-throughput-output conceptualization of an organization and the distinctive domains of activities of an organization. The relevance of specific dimensions of effectiveness is said to be contingent upon the type of organization and/or the domain of activities the organization is engaged in. The paper describes the multiple constituency approaches that variously emphasize the need to satisfy the powerful groups, the least advantaged groups, or different groups at different times. The position taken in this paper, however, advocates the perspective of the “prime beneficiary.”

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Velina B. Brackebusch

rely on government funding and nonprofit clubs for an opportunity to play and exercise. Managing and Developing Community Sport is a timely book, as it addresses the link between community sport and the business sector by reviewing how physical activity, sport development, health promotions, coaching

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Christine E. Wegner, Jeremy S. Jordan, Daniel C. Funk and Brianna Soule Clark

In the current study the researchers investigated the creation of an identity for Black female runners through their psychological and behavioral involvement in a national running organization for Black women. A repeated measures design was used with 756 members, surveying them twice over a 14-month period regarding their involvement both with the organization and with the activity of running. We found that members’ psychological and behavioral involvement with running increased over time, and that this change was more salient for members who did not consider themselves runners before they joined the organization. These findings provide initial support for the facilitation of a running identity through membership in this running organization.

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Joshua I. Newman

This article seeks to unsettle the taken-for-granted epistemological and ontological foundations upon which many curricular and research-based activities in contemporary sport management are grounded. With an emphasis on that academic field’s development in the United States in particular, the author problematizes the underlying assumptions that guide many of sport management’s concomitant scientific and industrial projects. The article concludes with a brief discussion on how we might reenvisage both the study and praxis of sport management in ways that are not just economically generative, but in ways that might also bring about cultural and social transformation.

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Pasi Koski

The purpose of this study was to analyze the organizational effectiveness of Finnish sports clubs (n = 835) from an open systems perspective. Five dimensions of effectiveness were examined, including the ability to obtain resources, internal atmosphere, efficiency of the throughput process, realization of aims, and general level of activity. All dimensions except internal atmosphere were intercorrelated. The findings indicated that many features of effectiveness were largely linked to the size of the membership, ideological orientation, and organizational environment. Success orientation was found to be incompatible with a relaxed atmosphere.