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Nell Faucette and Patricia Patterson

This study compared the teaching behaviors of elementary physical education specialists with those of classroom teachers (nonspecialists) while teaching physical education classes. Additionally, data were collected on student activity levels to detect similarities or differences in classes taught by specialists versus nonspecialists. Four specialists and 7 nonspecialists were observed during a 3-month period using the Teacher Observation Schedule (Rushall, 1977). The group time-sampling technique, Placheck recording, was used to gather data on the students’ levels of activity during the observed classes. It was found that specialists had significantly higher values in more effective teaching behaviors such as feedback/reward, questioning, and directing/explaining/informing, and significantly lower values in less effective teaching behaviors such as monitoring/attending. Additionally, there were significantly higher levels of activity for students in classes taught by specialists.

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Lauren J. Lieberman, John M. Dunn, Hans Van der Mars and Jeff McCubbin

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of trained peer tutors on the physical activity levels of deaf students1 in inclusive elementary physical education classes. A single subject delayed multiple baseline design across 8 deaf participants (4 boys and 4 girls) ages 10 to 12 was used. Eight typically developing, trained peers of the same age and gender served as peer tutors following training in use of sign language and basic teaching strategies. The dependent variable was moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) determined by McKenzie, Sallis and Nader’s (1991) System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT). The study included 3–4 sessions of baseline, 11–14 sessions of intervention, and 1–3 sessions of maintenance. Results revealed that after the introduction of peer tutoring, deaf students increased their MVPA from to 22% to 41.5%, and peer tutors increased their MVPA from 19% to 37.9%.

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François Trudeau, Louis Laurencelle and Roy J. Shephard

The purpose of this study was to examine the possible influence of childhood physical fitness on physical activity level and some of its psychosocial determinants as an adult. Childhood (age 10–12 years) data from the longitudinal Trois-Rivières Growth and Development Study (body mass index, Physical Work Capacity (PWC170)), number of sit-ups/min, left + right hands grip strength) were correlated with adult data (age 35.0 ± 0.3 years) for physical activity (PA) level, attitude toward PA, intention to exercise, perceived barriers to exercise and support of an active lifestyle by significant others. No significant relationships between childhood physical fitness and adulthood PA were found. Although the sample size is relatively small, our data suggest that the preadolescent physical fitness level has no measurable impact on adult habitual PA, attitudes toward PA, intentions to exercise, perceived barriers to exercise or support from the individual’s entourage.

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Mitch J. Duncan, Hannah M. Badland and William Kerry Mummery

Background:

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between occupational category and 3 health-related behaviors: participation in leisure-time physical activity, active transport (AT) and occupational sitting in a sample of employed Australian adults.

Methods:

A random, cross-sectional sample of 592 adults aged 18 to 71 years completed a telephone survey in October/November 2006. Reported occupations were categorized as professional (n = 332, 56.1%), white-collar (n = 181, 30.6%), and blue-collar (n = 79, 13.3%). Relationships between occupational category and AT, sufficient physical activity and occupational sitting were examined using logistic regression.

Results:

White-collar employees (OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.14−0.95) were less likely to engage in AT and more likely to engage in occupational sitting (OR = 3.10, 95% CI 1.63−5.92) when compared with blue-collar workers. Professionals (OR = 3.04, 95% CI 1.94−4.76) were also more likely to engage in occupational sitting compared with blue-collar workers. No relationship was observed between occupational category and engagement in sufficient physical activity.

Conclusions:

No association between occupational category and sufficient physical activity levels was observed, although white-collar and professionals were likely to engage in high levels of occupational sitting. Innovative and sustainable strategies are required to reduce occupational sitting to improve health.

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Jorge Mota, Paula Santos, Sandra Guerra, José C. Ribeiro and José A. Duarte

The purpose of this study was to compare the daily activity levels of children varying in body mass over 3 consecutive weekdays. The sample was comprised of 157 children (boys, n = 64; girls, n = 93), aged 8–15 years. BMI was used as obesity indicator. Children were categorized as non-obese and over- weight/obese group, according to the age-adapted values. The CSA activity monitor was used as an objective measure of daily physical activity. No significant differences were reported in the daily physical activity among boys and girls according to BMI group. Boys were significantly more engaged in moderate-to-vigorous physical activities (p = .05) than girls. Significant differences in moderate-to-vigorous physical activities (p = .05) were found between non-obese (69.3 min • day−1) and obese girls (50.7 min • day−1), while no significant differences were reported in boys. Differences between overall activities and involvement in MVPA emerged between overweight/obese and non-obese girls; therefore, obesity in girls may be linked to low levels of physical activity behavior.

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Anja Carlsohn, Friederike Scharhag-Rosenberger, Michael Cassel, Josefine Weber, Annette de Guzman Guzman and Frank Mayer

Adequate energy intake in adolescent athletes is considered important. Total energy expenditure (TEE) can be calculated from resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity level (PAL). However, validated PAL recommendations are available for adult athletes only. Purpose was to comprise physical activity data in adolescent athletes and to establish PAL recommendations for this population. In 64 competitive athletes (15.3 ± 1.5yr, 20.5 ± 2.0kg/m2) and 14 controls (15.1 ± 1.1yr, 21 ± 2.1kg/m2) TEE was calculated using 7-day activity protocols validated against doubly-labeled water. REE was estimated by Schofield-HW equation, and PAL was calculated as TEE:REE. Observed PAL in adolescent athletes (1.90 ± 0.35) did not differ compared with controls (1.84 ± 0.32, p = .582) and was lower than recommended for adult athletes by the WHO. In conclusion, applicability of PAL values recommended for adult athletes to estimate energy requirements in adolescent athletes must be questioned. Instead, a PAL range of 1.75–2.05 is suggested.

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Greet Cardon, Stefanie Verstraete, Dirk De Clercq and Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij

The main goal of the current study was to compare physical activity levels during swimming and nonswimming elementary physical education classes. We conducted a preliminary study and found that the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) could be used to register physical activity engagement levels in swimming classes. Thirty-nine classes, involving 8- to 12-year olds, participated in one swimming and one nonswimming physical education class. Classes were videotaped and physical activity levels for 234 students were quantified using SOFIT. Students engaged in more moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during swimming classes than during nonswimming classes. As a consequence, we advocate the inclusion of swimming lessons in physical education. Because the average engagement in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was lower than the recommended 50% in 41% of swimming classes and in 77% of the nonswimming classes, however, comprehensive efforts are needed to increase physical activity levels during both types of elementary physical education classes.

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Hyo Jung Yoon, Sang Ah Lee, Young Jun Ju, Jin Young Nam and Eun-Cheol Park

-smoker 522 160 360     Smoker 601 140 360   Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index; IQR, interquartile range; MVPA, moderate- to vigorous-intensityphysical activity level. a The median age of mothers and fathers in this study. The results from the mixed model reflecting the linear effect of parental MVPA on the

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Jessica L. Chandler, Keith Brazendale, Clemens Drenowatz, Justin B. Moore, Xuemei Sui, Robert G. Weaver and Michael W. Beets

to investigate age and gender differences in activity levels during each structure. Methods Participants (kindergarten [K]–fifth grade; aged 5–12 y) were recruited from 2 local ASPs with similar enrollment size, number of staff, time allocated for PA (∼45 min), and facilities. Each ASP enrolled

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Alessandra de Carvalho Bastone, Bruno de Souza Moreira, Renata Alvarenga Vieira, Renata Noce Kirkwood, João Marcos Domingues Dias and Rosângela Corrêa Dias

The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the Human Activity Profile (HAP) by comparing scores with accelerometer data and by objectively testing its cutoff points. This study included 120 older women (age 60–90 years). Average daily time spent in sedentary, moderate, and hard activity; counts; number of steps; and energy expenditure were measured using an accelerometer. Spearman rank order correlations were used to evaluate the correlation between the HAP scores and accelerometer variables. Significant relationships were detected (rho = .47−.75, p < .001), indicating that the HAP estimates physical activity at a group level well; however, scatterplots showed individual errors. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine HAP cutoff points on the basis of physical activity level recommendations, and the cutoff points found were similar to the original HAP cutoff points. The HAP is a useful indicator of physical activity levels in older women.