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Shu-Shih Hsieh, Yu-Kai Chang, Chin-Lung Fang and Tsung-Min Hung

The current study examined the effects of acute resistance exercise (RE) on adult males’ attention control. Eighteen younger males (23.9 ± 2.3 years) and 17 older males (66.4 ± 1.2 years) were recruited. Participants underwent a RE session and a reading session in a counterbalanced order. RE protocol required individuals to perform two sets of 10 repetitions of eight exercises using weights set at 70% of 10-repetition maximum. Attention control was assessed by go/no-go SART with intraindividual variability in reaction times (IIV in RT), in addition to reaction time and accuracy, employed as measures of attention control. Results indicated that IIV in RT was smaller following RE sessions than after reading sessions for both age groups. In addition, RTs were shorter after the exercise session. These findings suggest that RE enhances attention control in adult males and that the size of this effect is not moderated by age.

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Christopher J. Brush, Ryan L. Olson, Peter J. Ehmann, Steven Osovsky and Brandon L. Alderman

The purpose of this study was to examine possible dose–response and time course effects of an acute bout of resistance exercise on the core executive functions of inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility. Twenty-eight participants (14 female; M age = 20.5 ± 2.1 years) completed a control condition and resistance exercise bouts performed at 40%, 70%, and 100% of their individual 10-repetition maximum. An executive function test battery was administered at 15 min and 180 min postexercise to assess immediate and delayed effects of exercise on executive functioning. At 15 min postexercise, high-intensity exercise resulted in less interference and improved reaction time (RT) for the Stroop task, while at 180 min low- and moderate-intensity exercise resulted in improved performance on plus–minus and Simon tasks, respectively. These findings suggest a limited and task-specific influence of acute resistance exercise on executive function in healthy young adults.

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Yu-Kai Chang, I-Hua Chu, Feng-Tzu Chen and Chun-Chih Wang

The present research attempts to evaluate the dose-response relationship between acute resistance exercise and planning. Seventeen participants performed the Tower of London (TOL) in control condition and three different exercise intensity conditions (40%, 70%, and 100% 10-repetition maximal) in a counterbalanced order. The results revealed positive effects of an acute bout of resistance exercise on the TOL. Specifically, a curvilinear trend was observed between exercise intensity and TOL scores that measured performances of “correct” and “move,” where moderate intensity demonstrated the most optimal performance compared with the other conditions. None of these differences were found in TOL scores that measure performances of “violation” and “planning speed.” These results suggest that acute moderate intensity resistance exercise could facilitate planning-related executive functions in middle-aged adults.

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Stephan Dutke, Thomas Jaitner, Timo Berse and Jonathan Barenberg

Research on effects of acute physical exercise on performance in a concurrent cognitive task has generated equivocal evidence. Processing efficiency theory predicts that concurrent physical exercise can increase resource requirements for sustaining cognitive performance even when the level of performance is unaffected. This hypothesis was tested in a dual-task experiment. Sixty young adults worked on a primary auditory attention task and a secondary interval production task while cycling on a bicycle ergometer. Physical load (cycling) and cognitive load of the primary task were manipulated. Neither physical nor cognitive load affected primary task performance, but both factors interacted on secondary task performance. Sustaining primary task performance under increased physical and/or cognitive load increased resource consumption as indicated by decreased secondary task performance. Results demonstrated that physical exercise effects on cognition might be underestimated when only single task performance is the focus.

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Lise Gauvin and W. Jack Rejeski

This research describes the development and validation of a measure designed to assess feeling states that occur in conjunction with acute bouts of physical activity—the Exercise-Induced Feeling Inventory (EFI). The EFI consists of 12 items that capture four distinct feeling states: revitalization, tranquility, positive engagement, and physical exhaustion. The multidimensional structure of the EFI is supported by confirmatory factor analysis. The subscales have good internal consistency, share expected variance with related constructs, are sensitive to exercise interventions, and appear responsive to the different social contexts in which activity may occur. After describing the psychometric properties of the EFI, several directions for theory-based research are proposed.

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Francesc Llorens, Daniel Sanabria, Florentino Huertas, Enrique Molina and Simon Bennett

The abrupt onset of a visual stimulus typically results in overt attentional capture, which can be quantified by saccadic eye movements. Here, we tested whether attentional capture following onset of task-irrelevant visual stimuli (new object) is reduced after a bout of intense physical exercise. A group of participants performed a visual search task in two different activity conditions: rest, without any prior effort, and effort, immediately after an acute bout of intense exercise. The results showed that participants exhibited (1) slower reaction time of the first saccade toward the target when a new object was simultaneously presented in the visual field, but only in the rest activity condition, and (2) more saccades to the new object in the rest activity condition than in the effort activity condition. We suggest that immediately after an acute bout of effort, participants improved their ability to inhibit irrelevant (distracting) stimuli.

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Linda Paschen, Tim Lehmann, Miriam Kehne and Jochen Baumeister

effect of acute exercise on inhibition that was assessed by cognitive tasks. Many studies apply aerobic exercises with simple repetitive movements characterized by low cognitive demands as stimuli. Examples such as running on a treadmill are primarily intended to change cardiovascular performance, but

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Alaaddine El-Chab and Miriam E. Clegg

to the results and hence reduce their reproducibility ( Brouns et al., 2005 ). Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acute exercise (walking and cycling) prior to testing on the intraindividual variability of blood glucose and insulin responses. We hypothesized that

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Lisa A. Barella, Jennifer L. Etnier and Yu-Kai Chang

Research on the acute effects of exercise on cognitive performance by older adults is limited by a focus on nonhealthy populations. Furthermore, the duration of cognitive improvements after exercise has not been examined. Thus, this study was designed to test the immediate and delayed effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance of healthy older adults. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Stroop task. Participants were randomly assigned to an exercise (20 min of walking) or control (sitting quietly) condition. The Stroop task was administered at baseline and at 12 time points after treatment. Acute exercise resulted in better Stroop test performance immediately postexercise; however, the effects were limited to the color test. No effects of exercise on performance were observed for the Stroop interference or inhibition tests. Findings suggest that acute exercise performed by healthy older adults has short-term benefits for speed of processing but does not affect other types of cognitive functioning.

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Susan Shore and Roy J. Shephard

Immune responses have been examined in 11 children aged 10.3 ± 0.6 years before and after 12 weeks of aerobic training. Initial resting data showed high total lymphocyte, CD3+ and CD8+ counts, a low CD4+/CD8+ ratio and a low CD25+ count relative to young adults. Acute exercise (30 min at ventilatory threshold) initially increased CD4+, CD8+, and CD56+ counts, and decreased CD4+/CD8+ ratio, but CD56+ count did not decrease during recovery. After training, relative aerobic power remained unchanged at 50 ±3 ml · kg−1 · min−1. However, resting leukocyte, CD3’ and CD25’ counts were decreased, and acute exercise induced smaller changes in leukocyte and subset counts. We conclude that immune responses to exercise are generally similar in children and young adults.