The purpose was to examine adapted physical education (APE) specialists’ perceptions about consultation as a delivery model for individuals with disabilities. Six APE specialists (4 female, 2 male) from California participated in this phenomenological study. Data came from in-depth individual interviews, field observations, researcher notes, and focus group interactions. Analysis revealed distinct categories related to consultation: definition, contextual factors, effectiveness (benefits, barriers, documentation), competency, training, and consultation model preferences. Consultation interactions varied greatly because of the dynamic nature of the educational environment. The use of consultation was more prevalent with middle and high school students. Adapted physical education consultation occurred on a continuum from proximal to distal, dependent on the degree of interaction between the APE specialist, the general education (GE) teacher, and the student. The effectiveness of consultation was dependent upon the GE teacher’s attitude and the APE specialist’s communication skills and competencies.
Rebecca K. Lytle and Doug Collier
April Tripp and Claudine Sherrill
This paper emphasizes that attitude research in adapted physical education must become increasingly theory oriented. Likewise, teacher training must broaden to include scholarly study in relation to social psychology and attitude theory. To facilitate progress in this direction, nine attitude theories have been abstracted from the literature and reviewed under four general headings: learning-behavior theories, cognitive integration theories, consistency theories, and reasoned action theory. Individual theories presented are (a) contact, (b) mediated generalization, (c) assimilation-contrast or persuasive communication, (d) stigma, (e) interpersonal relations, (f) group dynamics, (g) cognitive dissonance, and (h) reasoned action. Illustrations of how each theory applies to selected studies in adapted physical education research and practice are offered, and a lengthy reference list provides both primary and secondary sources for the further study of attitudes.
Glenda Adams and Trudy Younger
Adapted physical education teachers usually work in a setting in which the instruction of handicapped students is highly individualized. Thus, they need to have skills that focus on personal as well as movement characteristics. It is suggested that an understanding of the role of counselor, and of the specific means of counseling, would enable the teachers to work more effectively with their students and their other colleagues.
Patricia I. Hogan
A prominent theme of educational reform involves focusing on developing students’ thinking abilities. This theme is germane to improving the quality of teacher preparation programs in all subject areas including adapted physical education (APE). Perhaps schools of education in general and APE teacher preparation programs in particular can learn from some progressive and prominent medical schools regarding the development of curricula, programs, and experiences to improve quality of personnel. These medical schools have introduced a conceptually significant innovation—the problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum. It is the purpose of this article to introduce the concept of PBL as a potential model for graduate level personnel preparation in APE.
Geoffrey D. Broadhead and Allen W. Burton
In this opinion paper, we pose the question whether the current generation of scholars have taken advantage of the rich legacy of early adapted physical activity (APA) research. We believe that this legacy often has been ignored, even though it holds many treasures waiting to be rediscovered. We begin with a brief description of the knowledge base in APA prior to 1980, then evaluate the present recognition of past research contributions. Finally, we recommend how students, professionals, and researchers might be encouraged to take advantage of the vast body of literature in APA and related fields.
This paper is a criticism of typical group research designs in which the data are analyzed by using standard analysis of variance structural models. A distinction is made between lawful relationships about averages and lawful relationships about people. It is argued that propositions about people cannot necessarily be derived from propositions about the mean of people because the patterns found by aggregating data across people do not necessarily apply to individuals. To find lawful universal relationships about people, data analysis strategies should recognize the person as a basic unit of analysis. Implications of this view for research conducted in adapted physical activity are outlined.
Sam Minner, Greg Prater and Allan Beane
Preservice teachers from a special education undergraduate training program and inservice teachers working in special education classrooms read a descriptive vignette of a hypothetical placement meeting. All subjects were asked to assume that they felt the child being discussed needed adapted physical education, but that no person in their local school district was trained to provide such services. In short, a “professional dilemma” was devised. After reading the vignette, subjects responded to several questions that assessed their willingness to recommend that the student be provided with the necessary service and the potential impact of this recommendation. Results indicated that both groups were willing to recommend the service but that the inservice group was more fearful of negative repercussions.
Peter J. Ellery and Michael J. Stewart
A survey of the 13 master’s level and five doctoral level adapted physical education programs that received federal funding in the United States in 1998 was conducted to develop a profile describing their attributes. The response rate was 100% (N = 18). Results indicated that these programs, in general, had received funding for more than 15 years, offered coursework from an average of three different academic disciplines, had a high graduate employment rate within 12 months of graduation, and had about one third of the graduates representing a recognized minority group. Master’s level teacher preparation programs were concentrated in the eastern region of the U.S., had graduates with predominantly in-state home addresses, and had graduated predominantly females. Doctoral level leadership programs were geographically distributed across the U.S., had graduates with predominantly out-of-state home addresses, and had equal graduate representation from both genders.
Deborah L. Krueger, Patrick DiRocco and Manny Felix
The purpose was to ascertain what obstacles adapted physical education (APE) specialists in Wisconsin had encountered while developing physical activity leisure transition plans (LTP) in accordance with the PL 105-17 mandate on transition services. Also addressed were the reasons why some APE specialists had not written LTPs or been involved in transition planning. Participants included 155 APE specialists representing 91 school districts in Wisconsin who returned a mailed questionnaire (i.e., a 75% return rate). Results indicated that only 21% (n = 33) of the APE specialists had written a LTP. Sixty-four percent (n = 78) of the specialists who reported not having written a LTP said that they had never been asked to be part of transition planning. APE specialists who had written LTPs indicated that transportation, social isolation, and budget restrictions were the greatest barriers.
Luis Columna, Jean Pyfer, Terry Senne, Luisa Velez, Nancy Bridenthrall and Maria Yolanda Canabal
The purpose of this study was to identify the perspectives of Hispanic parents of children with disabilities regarding adapted physical education (APE) professionals in relationship to their child’s purposeful play and transition to school programming. Participants (N = 11) were Hispanic parents of children with disabilities. Parents participated in one-on-one interviews in their preferred language (Spanish or English). Transcripts were analyzed through a constant comparative analysis. Three themes emerged from the data: (a) qualified APE professionals, (b) challenges for the family, and (c) normalcy. These themes were supported by subthemes. The results indicated that Hispanic families were not as familiar with APE services as Caucasian families were. Parental expectations among Hispanic parents were similar to Caucasian parents, but the preference for modes of communication and information differed.