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Richard L. Urbanski, Steven F. Loy, William J. Vincent and Ben B. Yaspelkis III

Ten physically active, untrained, college-aged males (26.4 ± 5.8 years old) received creatine (CR. 5 g creatine monohydrate + 3 g dextrose) and placebo (PLA, 7 g dextrose) supplementation four times per day for 5 days in a double-blind, randomized, balanced, crossover design. Performance was assessed during maximal and three repeated submaximal bouts of isometric knee extension and handgrip exercise. CR supplementation significantly increased (p < .05) maximal isometric strength during knee extension but not during handgrip exercise. CR supplementation increased time to fatigue during each of the three bouts of submaximal knee extension and handgrip exercise when compared to the PLA trials. These findings suggest that CR supplementation can increase maximal strength and lime to fatigue during isometric exercise. However, the improvements in maximal isometric strength following CR supplementation appear to be restricted to movements performed with a large muscle mass.

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Allan H. Goldfarb, Stephen W. Patrick, Scott Bryer and Tongjian You

Vitamin C supplementation (VC) (either 500 or 1000 mg/d for 2 wk) was compared to a placebo treatment (P) to ascertain if VC could influence oxidative stress. Twelve healthy males (25 ± 1.4 y) were randomly assigned in a counter-balanced design with a 2-wk period between treatments. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Exercise intensity measures (VO2, RER, RPE, HR, lactate) were similar across treatments. Resting blood oxidative-stress markers were unaffected by treatment. Exercise decreased total blood glutathione (TGSH) and reduced glutathione (GSH) and increased oxidized glutathione (GSSG) (P < 0.01) independent of treatment. Protein carbonyls (PC) increased 3.8 fold in the P (P < 0.01). VC attenuated the PC exercise response in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.01). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was not influenced by exercise (P = 0.68) or VC. These data suggest that VC supplementation can attenuate exercise-induced protein oxidation in a dose-dependent manner with no effect on lipid peroxidation and glutathione status.

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Terry L. Rizzo and Don R. Kirkendall

This study assessed the association between demographic attributes (gender, age, year in school, experience with students with disabilities, perceived competence in teaching students with disabilities, and academic preparation regarding individuals with disabilities) of undergraduate physical education majors and their attitudes toward teaching students labeled educable mentally retarded (EMR), learning disabled (LD), and behaviorally disordered (BD). Future physical educators (n = 226) were asked to complete the Physical Educators’ Attitudes Toward Teaching the Handicapped questionnaire, and 174 (77%) agreed. Data were collected on the first day of classes of a 16-week semester. Results from forward stepwise multiple-regression procedures showed that perceived competence and academic preparation regarding individuals with disabilities were the best predictors of favorable attitudes in general, and for EMR and LD. Results also showed that for BD, age and year in school were the best predictors of favorable attitudes. Thus, attitudes vary as a function of disabling conditions. The results provide evidence that there is a need to promote positive attitudes toward teaching individuals with disabilities.

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Marios Goudas, Stuart Biddle, Kenneth Fox and Martin Underwood

The purpose of this study was to examine the motivational effects of two different teaching styles in one sport activity. One class of 24 girls was taught track and field for 10 weeks, each lesson being taught with either a direct (practice) or a differentiated (inclusion) teaching style. After each lesson the girls completed self-report measures of intrinsic motivation and goal involvement. On course completion, 8 girls were interviewed to assess their reactions to the course. ANOVA showed that students reporting higher levels of competence, autonomy, and task orientation had higher intrinsic motivation scores throughout the course. However, teaching style was also found to have an independent effect; the differentiated style was associated with higher levels of intrinsic motivation and task goal involvement and lower levels of work avoidance involvement. A differentiated teaching style can positively influence young girls’ reactions to a sports activity independently of perceptions of goal orientations, autonomy, and competence.

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Gary Slater, David Jenkins, Peter Logan, Hamilton Lee, Matthew Vukovich, John A. Rathmacher and Allan G. Hahn

This investigation evaluated the effects of oral β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation on training responses in resistance-trained male athletes who were randomly administered HMB in standard encapsulation (SH), HMB in time release capsule (TRH), or placebo (P) in a double-blind fashion. Subjects ingested 3 g · day−1 of HMB or placebo for 6 weeks. Tests were conducted pre-supplementation and following 3 and 6 weeks of supplementation. The testing battery assessed body mass, body composition (using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), and 3-repetition maximum isoinertial strength, plus biochemical parameters, including markers of muscle damage and muscle protein turnover. While the training and dietary intervention of the investigation resulted in significant strength gains (p < .001) and an increase in total lean mass (p = .01), HMB administration had no influence on these variables. Likewise, biochemical markers of muscle protein turnover and muscle damage were also unaffected by HMB supplementation. The data indicate that 6 weeks of HMB supplementation in either SH or TRH form does not influence changes in strength and body composition in response to resistance training in strength-trained athletes.

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Jing Dong Liu and Pak-Kwong Chung

, whereas students with the least optimal motivational profiles, such as those who were amotivated, were less likely to participate in physical activity outside of PE class. So, the relationship between motivational profiles and affective outcomes (e.g., positive and negative affect) in the PE context

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Alister McCormick, Carla Meijen and Samuele Marcora

use strategic, motivational self-talk did not affect preevent self-efficacy or perceived control. It also did not affect performance in the ultramarathon, although this latter finding could be explained by the sample size and variability in performance times. Nevertheless, the data suggested that most

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Denise M. Hill, Matthew Cheesbrough, Paul Gorczynski and Nic Matthews

the short and long term by lowering their self-confidence and encouraging negative thinking. In turn, this psychological state was suggested to detrimentally affect the remainder of the athlete’s current performance (unless the choke occurred at the end of the game) and any future pressurized

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Arthur H. Bossi, Wouter P. Timmerman and James G. Hopker

affect GE in cycling is unknown, suggesting further investigation on this topic is necessary. Although the inverse relationship between EE and GE is evident, it is less clear whether using different EE equations would affect GE reliability. Yet, differences in measurement “noise” associated with each EE

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Anna K. Melin, Ida A. Heikura, Adam Tenforde and Margo Mountjoy

; Nattiv et al., 2007 ; Rickenlund et al., 2005 ; Thompson et al., 1993 ; Tornberg et al., 2017 ; Turton et al., 2017 ). Low substrate and nutrient availability negatively affect cognitive and physical function and health as well as performance both directly and indirectly. LEA causes endocrine changes