This paper examines factors associated with physical activity and health status among the 796 subjects aged 55 and older who appear in both the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey (CFS) and The Campbell’s Survey on Well-Being (CSWB), a longitudinal follow-up to the CFS. The CSWB can provide information about changes in physical activity patterns and health between 1981 and 1988. Although nonresponse to the overall survey was low, item nonresponse was problematic in some cases. Approximately 50% of the sample were not assessed on physical fitness measures (e.g., body mass index), while 14% and 38% refused to answer questions concerning alcohol consumption and family income, respectively. Of specific interest are the relationships of physical activity levels and self-rated health with socio-economic status, age, gender, smoking history, alcohol consumption, and measures of body composition.
Paula C. Fletcher and John P. Hirdes
Kerri McCaul, Joseph Baker and John K. Yardley
Adolescence is characterized as a period of change and adaptation typically marked by a decline in physical activity participation and accompanied by an increase in substance use. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among the type (team and individual activity) and intensity (high, medium, and low intensity) of physical activity and substance use (tobacco, marijuana, and alcohol use, and binge drinking) in a sample of 738 adolescents. Results indicated differing relationships among study variables depending on the type and intensity of physical activity and the type of substance used For instance, a positive relationship was found for physical activity intensity and alcohol use, but negative relationships were found for physical activity and tobacco and marijuana use. Collectively, the results reveal that the relationships between physical activity type and intensity and substance use are more complex than previously believed.
Neil M. Johannsen and Rick L. Sharp
The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in substrate oxidation between dextrose (DEX) and unmodified (UAMS) and acid/alcohol-modified (MAMS) cornstarches. Seven endurance-trained men (VO2peak = 59.1 ± 5.4 mL·kg−1·min−1) participated in 2 h of exercise (66.4% ± 3.3% VO2peak) 30 min after ingesting 1 g/kg body weight of the experimental carbohydrate or placebo (PLA). Plasma glucose and insulin were elevated after DEX (P < 0.05) compared with UAMS, MAMS, and PLA. Although MAMS and DEX raised carbohydrate oxidation rate through 90 min of exercise, only MAMS persisted throughout 120 min (P < 0.05 compared with all trials). Exogenous-carbohydrate oxidation rate was higher in DEX than in MAMS and UAMS until 90 min of exercise. Acid/alcohol modification resulted in augmented carbohydrate oxidation with a small, sustained increase in exogenous-carbohydrate oxidation rate. MAMS appears to be metabolizable and available for oxidation during exercise.
Bronwen Lundy, Helen O’Connor, Fiona Pelly and Ian Caterson
This study aimed to describe the physique characteristics and competition nutrient intake of professional Rugby League players and to assess use of a statistical technique for evaluating validity of dietary reporting. Players (n = 74) were endomorphic mesomorphs and had a mean weight, height, and BMI of 93.4 ± 10.9 kg, 179.9 ± 7.3 cm, and 28.5 ± 2.1 kg/m2 respectively. Mean sum of eight skinfolds was 78.9 ± 2.2 mm (12.4 ± 2.9% fat). Players (n = 34) reported a mean daily energy intake of 17,708 ± 3,688 kJ (carbohydrate 51%, protein 18%, fat 25%, alcohol 4%) with 6 and 2.0 g · kg−1 · d−1 from carbohydrate and protein respectively. Micronutrient intake was adequate but alcohol consumption was high relative to health standards. The dietary records provided a plausible estimate of energy intake however further research is required to evaluate statistical techniques for assessing dietary validity in athlete groups.
Alicia H. Malnati, Leslee A. Fisher, Rebecca A. Zakrajsek, Leslie K. Larsen, Matthew P. Bejar, Johannes J. Raabe and Jamie M. Fynes
Because alcohol abuse and sexual violence are particularly prevalent on college campuses (Coker et al., 2011), empowering female student-athletes is a vital pursuit for intercollegiate athletics (Gill, 2008; Cattaneo & Chapman, 2010). Using consensual qualitative research (Hill et al., 1997, 2005), we interviewed eight Division I female student-athletes who participated in an empowerment program about their experiences. Five domains were revealed: (a) perception of psychological empowerment, (b) perception of social empowerment, (c) perception of physical empowerment, (d) perception of biggest “takeaways,” and (e) experience of program. Findings illustrated the importance of empowering female student-athletes to believe in themselves, to act upon those beliefs, and to build community around those beliefs.
Eldon E. Snyder
This case study analyzes a group of college athletes who were involved in a series of larcenies. A focal point of the study is that these athletes did not fit the usual profile of deviants who would commit large-scale crimes. Furthermore, the athletes in question were apparently not committing the crimes for material gain. Differential interpretations that are given to explain the athletes’ behaviors include defective character traits, the use of alcohol, peer pressure, and the quest for excitement. These interpretations and explanations are discussed within a broader interpretive model of behavior.
Bradley N. Hedrick, Martin I. Morse and Stephen F. Figoni
This project assessed training behaviors and attributes of elite wheelchair racers. Training information was received from 36 participants in the 1985 National 10K Wheelchair Roadracing Championship. Data were obtained about age, weight, nature and level of disability, racing experience, sources of training information, level of cigarette and alcohol use, and dietary habits. Weekly training behaviors across yearly quarters were assessed with regard to the number of weekly pushing workouts, length of pushing workouts, number of miles pushed per week, percentage of training time allocated to interval training and/or speedwork, number of weekly weight-training sessions, and number of other augmentative physical activities pursued twice or more per week. Perceived exertion during interval and noninterval, steady-state training tasks was also measured. Results revealed that training behaviors of elite wheelchair racers are very heterogeneous. Participation in and age of introduction to elite wheelchair racing were found to be predominantly adult phenomena. The health practices of the athletes regarding cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, and weight control were generally found to be good. However, inadequate caloric control measures by the quadriplegics and the ingestion of protein supplements by male racers indicate that some dietary counseling may be needed. The results provide a starting point for a data base pertaining to training behaviors in wheelchair racing.
Fran Longstaff, Nick Heather, Susan Allsop, Elizabeth Partington, Mark Jankowski, Helen Wareham, A. St Clair Gibson and Sarah Partington
This study examined whether students engaged in university sport have different drinking outcome expectancies and normative beliefs than students who are not engaged in university sport. A cross-sectional survey of university students in England in 2008–2009 was undertaken. A questionnaire battery, including the Drinking Expectancies Questionnaire (DEQ) and a measure of normative beliefs, was completed by 770 students from seven universities across England. Responses from 638 students who were not abstaining from alcohol were analyzed. Students engaged in university sport have significantly higher drinking expectancies of assertion compared with students not engaged in university sport. Moreover, students engaged in university sport consistently report higher personal alcohol consumption and higher perceptions of consumption in those around them than students not engaged in university sport. Both assertion and the perception that students around them drink heavily provide only a partial explanation for why students engaged in university sport drink more than those not engaged in university sport. Further research is required to identify the reasons for heavy drinking among students involved in university sport in England.
Michael A. Messner and William S. Solomon
This article analyzes the print media’s ideological framing of the 1991 story of boxer Sugar Ray Leonard’s admission of having physically abused his wife and abused cocaine and alcohol. We examined all news stories and editorials on the Leonard story in two major daily newspapers and one national sports daily. We found that all three papers framed the story as a “drug story,” while ignoring or marginalizing the “wife abuse” story. We argue that sports writers utilized an existing ideological “jocks-on-drugs” media package that framed this story as a moral drama of individual sin and public redemption. Finally, we describe and analyze the mechanisms through which the wife abuse story was ignored or marginalized.
Mohamad Al-Tannir, Samer Kobrosly, Taha Itani, Mariam El-Rajab and Sawsan Tannir
This survey aims to assess the prevalence of physical activity among adult Lebanese, and to report the relationship between sociodemographic variables and physical activity behavior, highlighting the correlates discouraging people to carry out physical activity.
A cross-sectional study using an anonymous self-reported questionnaire was conducted on 346 adults from four Lebanese districts. Demographic characteristics, physical activity, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and medical history were obtained.
Prevalence of physical activity among Lebanese adults was 55.5% (192/346). Age, BMI, marital status, medical history, occupation, educational level, and smoking were significantly associated with physical activity (P < .05). Inactive obese participants were about three times more likely to report hypertension and diabetes than inactive normal weight participants (P = .013). BMI was significantly higher among inactive participants (P = .014).
Physical activity among Lebanese adults was comparable to other populations. Married, non–office workers, and smokers were the main correlates of physical inactivity in Lebanese adulthood.