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Nicola D. Ridgers, Stuart J. Fairclough and Gareth Stratton

Background:

Recess is an opportunity for children to engage in daily physical activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the 12-month effects of a playground intervention on children’s moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) during morning and lunchtime recess.

Methods:

Four hundred and seventy children (232 boys, 238 girls) from 26 elementary schools participated in the study. Fifteen schools redesigned the playground environment using playground markings and physical structures. Eleven schools served as socioeconomic matched controls. Physical activity levels were quantified using heart rate and accelerometry at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months post-intervention. A 3-level (time, pupil, and school) multilevel analysis was used to determine the effects of the intervention across time on MVPA and VPA.

Results:

Positive yet nonsignificant intervention effects were found for MVPA and VPA during morning and lunchtime recess. Intervention children were more active during recess than control children. Interactions revealed that the intervention effect was stronger at 6 months than 12 months post-intervention.

Conclusions:

A playground markings and physical structures intervention had a positive effect on intervention children’s morning and lunchtime MVPA and VPA when assessed using heart rate and accelerometry, but this effect is strongest 6-months post-intervention and decreased between 6 months and 12 months.

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Hyung Joon Joo, Sang-A Cho, Jae-Young Cho, Seunghun Lee, Jae Hyung Park, Cheol Woong Yu, Soon Jun Hong and Do-Sun Lim

Background:

Although the relationship between physical activity and arterial stiffness has been shown in healthy persons, it remains controversial in obese persons.

Methods:

From January 2014 to September 2014, we evaluated 795 obese subjects from 25 public health centers in Seoul, Korea. We compared physical activity and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) between obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS) (MO) and obese subjects without MetS (NMO).

Results:

The MO group had more men, higher body mass index (BMI), higher fasting glucose level, lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level, and higher triglyceride level. The mean physical activity levels were similar between the 2 groups. baPWV was higher in the MO group than the NMO group. MO group showed positive correlation between baPWV and physical activity (P trend = 0.04). Interestingly, baPWV was significantly higher in the MO group than in the NMO group in subjects with moderate and vigorous physical activity (1403.4 cm/sec vs 1349 cm/sec [95% CI 21.4 to 87.4], P < .05). Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity was apparently associated with age, BMI, blood pressure, and glucose level.

Conclusions:

In a community-based population, baPWV was higher in obese MetS group compared with obese non-MetS group. Physical activity showed different association with baPWV depending on metabolic status.

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Genevieve Fridlund Dunton, Margaret Schneider, Dan J. Graham and Dan M. Cooper

Cross-sectional research examined whether physical activity or physical fitness was more closely linked to physical self-concept in adolescent females ages 14 to 17 (N = 103, 63% Caucasian). Moderate physical activity and vigorous physical activity were measured through a 3-day physical activity recall. Physical fitness was assessed using highly accurate measures of peak oxygen consumption (via cycle ergometer) and percent body fat (via dual X-ray absorptiometer). The Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) assessed self-concept in 11 domains (e.g., health, endurance, appearance). Pearson’s correlations showed that vigorous physical activity was positively associated with scores on most of the PSDQ scales (p < .005). Peak oxygen consumption was positively related to all of the selfconcept domains (p < .001), and percent body fat was negatively related on most of the PSDQ scales (p < .005). Multiple-regression analyses found that physical fitness (i.e., peak oxygen consumption and percent body fat) was more closely related to physical self-concept than was physical activity. In addition to the possibility that genetically determined fitness levels may influence physical selfconcept, these findings suggest that programs designed to elevate self-perceptions may require physical activity levels sufficient to improve cardiovascular fitness and decrease body fat.

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Kyle M. Petit and Tracey Covassin

Context: Cognitive and physical rest are commonly utilized when managing a sport-related concussion (SRC); however, emerging research now suggests that excessive rest may negatively impact recovery. Despite current research recommendations, athletic trainers (ATs) may be behind in implementing this emerging research into clinical practice. Objective: To assess college ATs’ perceptions and implementation of an emerging SRC management approach (cognitive and physical rest and activity). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Survey. Participants: A total of 122 (11.8%) ATs (53.3% female; 10.8 [9.8] y experience; 8.7 [6.9] SRCs managed annually) responded to the survey, which was randomly distributed to 1000 members of the National Athletic Trainers’ Association, as well as 31 additional ATs from varying universities. Main Outcome Measures: A 5-point Likert scale assessed the ATs’ perceptions and clinical practices as they relate to specific athlete behaviors (ie, texting, sleeping). The ATs were asked about their willingness to incorporate physical activity into clinical practice. Results: Playing video games (95.9%) and practicing (93.4%) were the activities most perceived to extend SRC recovery. However, sleeping more than usual (7.4%) and increased time in a dark environment (11.5%) were viewed as less likely to extend recovery. ATs restricted practicing (98.4%) and working out (91.8%) for athletes with SRC, while sleeping more than usual (6.6%) and increased time in a dark environment (13.1%) were less restricted. About 71% of the ATs would implement light physical activity for athletes with a symptom score of 1 to 5, 31% with scores of 6 to 10, and 15% with scores of 11 to 20. About 43%, 74%, and 97% believe that light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity, while symptomatic, will extend recovery, respectively. Conclusions: The ATs were receptive to including light physical activity into their SRC management, although only in certain situations. However, most ATs’ beliefs and clinical practices did not completely align with emerging research recommendations for the management of SRCs.

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.1123/jsep.31.6.685 Research Affect, Exercise, and Physical Activity among Healthy Adolescents Margaret Schneider * Andrea Dunn * Daniel Cooper * 12 2009 31 6 706 723 10.1123/jsep.31.6.706 Conscientiousness, Extroversion, and Action Control: Comparing Moderate and Vigorous Physical Activity Gert

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and Vigorous Physical Activity and Gross Motor Coordination in Preschool Children Sandra Silva-Santos * Amanda Santos * Michael Duncan * Susana Vale * Jorge Mota * 1 08 2019 7 2 273 285 10.1123/jmld.2017-0056 jmld.2017-0056 JMLD Journal of Motor Learning and Development 2325-3193 2325-3215 1

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* Pamela Kulinna * Han van der Mars * 10 2016 35 4 337 348 10.1123/jtpe.2016-0112 Gender and School-Level Differences in Students’ Moderate and Vigorous Physical Activity Levels When Taught Basketball Through the Tactical Games Model Stephen Harvey * Megan L. Smith * Yang Song * David Robertson

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ZáNean McClain, Daniel W. Tindall and E. Andrew Pitchford

children including subsamples of children with DCD ( n  = 111), at-risk for DCD ( n  = 177), and typically developing ( n  = 301). All children were measured in multiple components of HRF (i.e., body composition, musculoskeletal fitness, aerobic fitness, flexibility) and vigorous physical activity using an

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, including subsamples of children with DCD ( n  = 111), at-risk for DCD ( n  = 177), and typically developing ( n  = 301). All children were measured according to the multiple components of HRF (i.e., body composition, musculoskeletal fitness, aerobic fitness, flexibility) and vigorous physical activity via

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Goodman * W. Douglas Evans * Loretta DiPietro * 1 2012 9 9 1 1 124 124 128 128 10.1123/jpah.9.1.124 Correlates of Children’s Moderate and Vigorous Physical Activity During Weekdays and Weekends Stuart J. Fairclough * Nicola D. Ridgers * Gregory Welk * 1 2012 9 9 1 1 129 129 137 137 10.1123/jpah