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Mark McDonald and Daniel Rascher

A primary objective of sport marketers in the professional sport setting is to develop strategies to increase game attendance. Historically, one of the strategies to accomplish this goal has been the utilization of special promotions. This paper studied the impact of promotions on attendance at professional sport games. Specifically, this research examines (a) the overall effect of promotions on attendance, and (b) the marginal impact on attendance of additional promotional days. Using a data set containing 1,500 observations, we find that a promotion increases single game attendance by about 14%. Additionally, increasing the number of promotions has a negative effect on the marginal impact of each promotion. The loss from this watering down effect, however, is outweighed by the gain from having an extra promotion day.

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Yu Kyoum Kim and Galen Trail

This study focused on developing a model to explain relationships among constraints, motivators, and attendance, and empirically test the proposed model within the spectator sport context. The proposed model explained 34% of variance in Attendance. Results showed that Attachment to the Team, an internal motivator, entered first and explained approximately 21% of the variance in attendance. Lack of Success, an internal constraint, entered next and explained almost 10% additional variance. Leisure Alternatives, an external constraint entered next and explained an additional 3%. The ability to properly evaluate constraints and motivators gives sport marketers the opportunity to more effectively serve existing fans, as well as attract new fans.

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Masayuki Yoshida, Bob Heere and Brian Gordon

A consumer’s loyalty to a specific sport team is longitudinal in nature. This longitudinal study examines the effects of consumers’ attitudinal constructs (team identification, associated attachment points, consumer satisfaction, and behavioral intentions) on behavioral loyalty in the context of a professional soccer event. To test the proposed relationships, the authors assess the impact of consumers’ self-reported measures (Time 1) on actual attendance frequency in the first half (Time 2) and the second half (Time 3) of the season. The results indicate that fan community attachment is the only construct that can predict attendance frequency over a longer period of time while team identification, satisfaction and behavioral intentions are not significant predictors of attendance frequency throughout the season. The theoretical model and results reinforce the importance of fan community attachment toward longitudinal attendance frequency and add new insights into the predictive validity of some of the attitudinal marketing measures in the field of sport management.

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Ketra L. Armstrong

Black consumers' general sport attendance is relatively poor; however, their attendance at historically Black college/university (HBCU) sport events is noteworthy. The purpose of this study was to examine how factors such as general perception of sport, psychosocial involvement with HBCU sports, and intensity of ethnic identification influenced Black consumers' (n = 278) attendance at HBCU sports and their general/non-HBCU sport consumption patterns. Descriptive statistics revealed that the respondents attended HBCU sports more frequently than they did any other type of sport events and were also avid consumers of televised sports. Multivariate multiple regression analyses revealed that intensity of ethnic identification and psychosocial involvement with HBCU sports significantly influenced HBCU sports attendance frequency. Moreover, psychosocial involvement with HBCU sports exerted a profound and positive influence on general sport consumption. This study offered an examination of the social psychology that may under gird Blacks' consumption of sport.

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Audrey J. Murrell and Beth Dietz

Previous research in sport psychology has shown a connection between fan support of sport teams and overall team success by focusing on factors that influence the frequency of fan attendance. The present study examined the impact of fan identification as another determinant of fan support that may operate independent of structural factors such as win-loss record or actual fan attendance. College undergraduates (N=120) completed a survey of student activities that contained measures of collective esteem and ingroup identification in terms of their university affiliation. Subjects indicated the number of games attended and provided evaluations of the university's basketball and football teams. Results indicated that aspects of collective group identity significantly predict fan support in terms of attendance and overall evaluation of both sport teams. Also, level of group identification predicted attitudinal support of teams regardless of actual fan attendance. Implications for the connection of fan identity to more general forms of ingroup identification are discussed.

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Angus A. Leahy, Narelle Eather, Jordan J. Smith, Charles H. Hillman, Philip J. Morgan, Ronald C. Plotnikoff, Michael Nilsson, Sarah A. Costigan, Michael Noetel and David R. Lubans

to assess feasibility. The 4 domains of feasibility were (1) recruitment (achievement of target sample size), (2) retention (retention rate at 14-wk follow-up), (3) attendance (adherence to HIIT sessions), and (4) program satisfaction (teachers’ and students’ satisfaction with the B2L program

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Jason W. Lee, Ryan K. Zapalac, Elizabeth A. Gregg and Courtney Godfrey

football. Due to the success that the event has experienced, NRG Stadium became the permanent home for the Battle of the Piney Woods in 2015 ( Champion, 2016 ). In fact, the game has set many attendance records for the institutions, with 27,411 fans attending the 2016 contest ( Dean, 2016 ). It should be

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Mark P. Pritchard and Daniel C. Funk

The relationship between the consumption of sport via media and its more active counterpart, attendance, remains ambiguous. Some researchers have observed a symbiotic relationship at work—each behavior fueling the other, whereas others see no connection or argue that media use competes with live attendance as a recreational substitute. The current study of baseball game spectators (n = 308) employed a dual-route framework (DRF) to describe symbiotic and substitution behaviors. High/low mixes of media use and attendance were used to identify four distinct modes of intake (heavy, light, and media- and event-dominant). Follow-up comparisons distinguished each mode with discrete levels of involvement, satisfaction, and spectator attraction. The results expose the limits of previous models of spectator behavior and encourage us to broaden our understandings of consumption frequency beyond attendance alone. The DRF modes suggest that plotting media use in conjunction with attendance offers a more accurate account of spectator involvement. If models like the escalator dissected the data, they would consider the light and media-dominant and the heavy and event-dominant modes as equivalent. The importance of media-dominant consumption and the strategic implications of these segments are discussed.

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Alain Ferrand, Leigh Robinson and Pierre Valette-Florence

The article proposes a conceptual model to examine the relationships between service attributes, brand associations, customer satisfaction, commitment, price of membership, and intention to repurchase in a fitness club. The results show that the services offered by the club, its security, and the promoted image of the club impact positively on satisfaction. The customer relations at the club, customer commitment, and their frequency of weekly attendance have a positive direct effect on intention to repurchase. Perceived price has a negative direct influence. Finally, the research showed that overall satisfaction has a slight positive impact on frequency of attendance. These findings create a paradox for managers of health and fitness organizations who will have to balance the need to increase frequency of attendance to positively impact on intention to repurchase with the need to deliver the service attributes that affect satisfaction and intention to repurchase at high quality level.

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Jannique G.Z. van Uffelen, Marijke J.M. Chinapaw, Marijke Hopman-Rock and Willem van Mechelen

This study examined the feasibility and effect on aerobic fitness of a 1-yr, twice-weekly, group-based moderate-intensity walking program (MI-WP, n = 77) compared with a low-intensity activity program (LI-AP, n = 75) for community-dwelling older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Thirty participants did not start a program; median attendance in the other 122 participants was 71%. Small but significant associations were observed between attendance and memory in the MI-WP and general cognition in the LI-AP. Associations were no longer significant when both groups were analyzed together. Intensity, assessed using percentage of heart-rate reserve and the Borg scale, equaled intended intensity for both programs. Aerobic fitness improved significantly in participants in the MI-WP. In conclusion, cognition was not clearly associated with attendance in the 62 participants starting the MI-WP, and average attendance was good. The intensity was feasible for participants who continued the MI-WP. The findings support the proposal that regular moderate-intensity walking improves aerobic fitness in adults with MCI.