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Neng Wan, Ming Wen, Jessie X. Fan, O. Fahina Tavake-Pasi, Sara McCormick, Kirsten Elliott and Emily Nicolosi

group method to understand the attitudes toward PA and mobile-technology-based PA intervention among Tongan Americans in Utah. Our research questions include (1) What are Tongan Americans’ perspectives on costs and benefits of PA? (2) What are the barriers and motivators of PA among Tongan Americans

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Phoenix K. H. Mo, Eddie S. K. Chong, Winnie W. S. Mak, Samuel Y. S. Wong and Joseph T. F. Lau

Physical activity is associated with various health benefits for people with mental illness (PMI). Very few studies to date have examined the factors associated with physical activity among PMI in the Chinese context. The present study examined the factors related to physical activity using the health belief model and the association between physical activity and perceived health among 443 PMI in Hong Kong using stratified sampling. Results from the structural equation modeling showed that among all the factors of the health belief model, self-efficacy was significantly related to higher levels of physical activity, and perceived barriers were significantly related to lower levels of physical activity. In addition, physical activity was significantly related to better perceived health and fewer health needs. Interventions to promote physical activity among PMI should aim to increase their self-efficacy in initiating and adhering to physical activity and to remove barriers to physical activity.

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Kavin K.W. Tsang, Barton P. Buxton, W. Kent Guion, A. Barry Joyner and Kathy D. Browder

The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in skin temperature during ice application through a dry towel and a dry elastic bandage compared to application on bare skin. Nine subjects completed a 30-min treatment session that consisted of 0.68 kg of cubed ice applied under three conditions: through a dry towel, through a dry elastic bandage, and directly on the skin (control). Following the removal of the ice, all subjects were monitored for 20-min for skin temperature (S temp). There was a significant interaction in S temp between the control (12.50 ± 4.39 °C) and dry towel (23.48 ± 2.88 °C) conditions, the control (12.50 ± 4.39 °C) and dry elastic wrap (27.47 ± 2.36 °C) conditions, and the dry towel (23.48 ± 2.88 °C) and dry elastic wrap (27.47 ± 2.36 °C) conditions. The findings indicated that using a barrier (dry towel or dry elastic bandage) limits the temperature-reducing capacity of the ice and therefore its potential physiological effects.

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Kari Fasting and Mari-Kristin Sisjord

This study attempts to measure quantitative and qualitative dimensions of leisure time in an effort to see how they are related to the sport participation rates of women and men. Using data collected from a sample of 83 women and 128 men—all of whom were employed, married parents—it was found that women did more housework than men did but the time spent on housework did not account for differences in participation rates for either women or men. Most important in explaining participation in sports among women was the average number of hours per week their spouses were away from home in the evenings. On the basis of these findings it was concluded that the quantitative dimensions of leisure were not associated with sport participation rates; however, the qualitative dimensions of leisure were associated with barriers to participation for women but not for men. The data suggested that compared to men, women were less likely to feel they had the freedom to participate in sport. This difference was explained in terms of a combination of factors including differential socialization and different patterns of motivation related to sport participation among women and men.

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Keith A. King, Jennifer L. Tergerson and Bradley R. Wilson

Background:

Social support can influence physical activity among some individuals. This study examined the effect that social support has on adolescents’ physical activity and their perceived barriers and benefits to exercising.

Methods:

A survey was completed by adolescents (N = 535) at 2 single-sex (1 male, 1 female) high schools in Ohio.

Results:

Adolescents who received parental encouragement to exercise and who had an exercising friend engaged in significantly more days of physical activity in the past week than did their counterparts. Perceived benefits of physical activity differed significantly based on whether the respondent received parental encouragement and had a friend who exercised. Social support for physical activity significantly affected adolescents’ perceptions of and engagement in physical activity.

Conclusions:

Parents should encourage their children to become physically active and partner with peers when exercising.

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Ester Cerin, Evie Leslie, Takemi Sugiyama and Neville Owen

Background:

Perceived barriers are modifiable correlates of participation in physical activity. Associations of specific perceived barriers with participation in and level of walking for recreation, and other leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) were examined. Personal, social, and environmental factors associated with these perceived barriers were then examined.

Methods:

From 2003 to 2004, 2 surveys collected data on recreational walking and other LTPA, perceived barriers to participation, and personal, social, and environmental attributes, from 2194 Australian adults. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models examined associations of perceived barriers with walking and other LTPA. Generalized linear models identified the correlates of these perceived barriers.

Results:

The perceived barriers of lack of motivation and time were associated with level of LTPA, while lack of motivation, poor health, and lack of facilities were associated with the odds of non-participation in LTPA. Personal, social, and environmental factors independently contributed to variations in perceived barriers.

Conclusions:

Level and likelihood of participation in LTPA are associated with different perceived barriers. Perceived barriers are a function of both nonmodifiable personal factors and potentially modifiable personal, social, and environmental factors. These findings suggest that the provision of relevant environmental opportunities and social support may effectively reduce perceived barriers to LTPA.

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Rikki A. Cannioto

Despite much research investigating physical activity (PA) barriers for American women, the PA barriers experienced by overweight and obese working women remain largely unexamined. This preliminary investigation assessed the PA barriers, behaviors, and beliefs of 40 overweight/obese women with full-time desk jobs for the subsequent development and implementation of a tailored “healthy weight” wellness program. Based on qualitative and quantitative data analysis, the majority of participants weren’t sufficiently active, citing motivation and time as their biggest perceived barriers. Statistically significant relationships were identified between BMI and barrier numbers, PA levels, PA enjoyment, and PA importance; as well as between PA levels and barrier numbers, PA enjoyment, and PA importance. An effective PA intervention should emphasize 300 minutes of PA a week, while incorporating evidence-based behavioral strategies (i.e., goal setting, self-monitoring, contingency management, social support, stimulus control, and cognitive restructuring) that have been proven to decrease barriers and increase PA adherence among overweight and obese individuals.

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Nefertiti Durant, Jacqueline Kerr, Sion Kim Harris, Brian E. Saelens, Gregory J. Norman and James F. Sallis

Few studies have explored barriers to physical activity in parks and streets among children, adolescents, and their parents. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the psychometric properties of a new survey of barriers to physical activity in neighborhood parks and streets. Adolescents and parents of children and adolescents completed surveys twice. Two barrier subscales (environment and safety) emerged that applied to both locations and all participant groups. Results generally supported acceptable, internal consistency as well as construct validity, but test-retest reliabilities were lower than desired. These scales may be used to improve understanding of perceptions of barriers to physical activity in neighborhood parks and streets, but further development is needed.

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Pamela K. Samra, Amanda L. Rebar, Lynne Parkinson, Jannique G.Z. van Uffelen, Stephanie Schoeppe, Deborah Power, Anthony Schneiders, Corneel Vandelanotte and Stephanie Alley

(perceived benefits and barriers) in relation to physical activity ( Bauman et al., 2012 ). Due to unique health, economic, and social characteristics of older adults, they are likely to have different factors that most strongly affect their physical activity levels ( Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2013

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Noni Zaharia and Anastasios Kaburakis

Collaboration between industry and academia is a subject of great interest to sport management academics and sport industry leaders in the United States. However, there is a lack of research regarding barriers to sport industry–academia collaborations and bridging the gap between sport management research and practitioners. The aim of the study was to explore trends in collaboration barriers among various research involvement levels of U.S. sport firms with sport management academia. Data were gathered from 303 sport managers working for U.S. sport companies. Results indicated several barriers for research collaborations between the U.S. sport industry and academia. Such barriers include transactional barriers, sport industry subsectors, sport organizations’ location, and age and education level of respondents.