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Jon Welty Peachey, Nico Schulenkorf and Ramon Spaaij

programs and suggest future developments in the field. LeCrom et al. ( 2019 ) outline barriers to theory development in SFD and to bridging the theory–practice divide that are primarily the result of methodological and contextual challenges resulting from the myriad types of SFD initiatives. The authors

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Katie Lebel

vernacular. The GIST attempts to address these taken-for-granted barriers by providing a female perspective to sport commentary that is packaged in a contextualized, noncondescending voice. By way of a twice-weekly e-mail, daily social media content, and various event-specific sport experiences, The GIST

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process within the IMC strategies of the organization. It helped overcome cultural barriers, such as language, ticketing, and communication, and it enabled engagement of the different communication channels. Turner, P. (2016). Implementing integrated marketing communications (IMC) through major event

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Spencer Riehl, Ryan Snelgrove and Jonathon Edwards

probably the biggest barrier, but the biggest detriment would be not educating your coaches, not educating your conveners on the benefits.” Similarly, coach Pete, referenced the significance of educating stakeholders about cross-ice hockey: “You really have to work or provide information to the parents to

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Bradley J. Baker, Jeremy S. Jordan and Daniel C. Funk

, & Eddosary, 2015 ). However, lack of physical access to a running event acts as a structural barrier, constraining participation independent of runners’ preferences ( Crawford & Godbey, 1978 ). Runners who live near an event are more able to participate and to repeat participation in subsequent years. As

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Elizabeth A. Taylor, Jessica L. Siegele, Allison B. Smith and Robin Hardin

attribute the lack of women in sport organizations to a lack of aspiration, not opportunity ( Claringbould & Knoppers, 2012 ). Homologous reproduction is another barrier that prohibits women from reaching leadership positions in collegiate athletics. Homologous reproduction is the process by which dominant

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Sarah Zipp, Tavis Smith and Simon Darnell

provides insight on challenging the neoliberal approaches that have defined much of the SFD movement ( Lindsey, Kay, Banda, & Jeanes, 2017 ). In collaboration with our CA model, this localized perspective can help researchers and practitioners address the (often hidden) barriers to and stimulators of

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Jueyin Zheng

, which allows both casual and avid fans to play at the same time. For example, TTNFL has a star-player “PK” function that offers a lower barrier to entry than your usual fantasy game. It’s a simplified format that doesn’t require too much in-depth NFL knowledge to join. Given that the participation rate

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Ian O’Boyle, David Shilbury and Lesley Ferkins

think it’s up to them to some extent as to how available they are in terms of their time commitments so that some will have more availability than others. The barriers are two—time and distance. (G4) It’s never been in my mind that one is paid and one isn’t but, yeah, probably a paid chairman might be

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Christopher M. McLeod and Calvin Nite

make MMA appealing to new participants, but they also created and maintained barriers, which hindered retention, suggesting a need for alternative fighter development models. Since new sport systems rearrange stakeholders, cause conflicts, and influence athlete development, it is important to develop a