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Luana T. Rossato, Camila T.M. Fernandes, Públio F. Vieira, Flávia M.S. de Branco, Paula C. Nahas, Guilherme M. Puga and Erick P. de Oliveira

the incomplete stage, T was the total time (s) set for the complete stage (in this case, 120 s) and increment of speed of 1.0 km·h −1 per stage. VO 2 max was determined during the incremental test using indirect calorimetry equipment (Quark; Cosmed, Rome, Italy), which was calibrated prior to each

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Ralph Beneke, Tobias G.J. Weber and Renate M. Leithäuser

at each stage via indirect calorimetry. 30 The relCHO was calculated as the fraction (%) of the V ˙ O 2 used for CHO, with 100% reflecting a respiratory-exchange ratio ≥1.0. For the approximation of k CHO and n, the first and the final stages of the incremental load test were excluded due to

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Avish P. Sharma, David J. Bentley, Gaizka Mejuto and Naroa Etxebarria

their own preferred cadence during this maximal test. Cardiorespiratory metabolic variables were measured continuously throughout the test using a fully automated indirect calorimetry system (K4b2; COSMED, Rome, Italy). The gas analyzer was calibrated prior to each test using gases of known

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Andreas M. Kasper, Ben Crighton, Carl Langan-Evans, Philip Riley, Asheesh Sharma, Graeme L. Close and James P. Morton

Protocol ( Nana et al., 2015 ). Resting metabolic rate was assessed via indirect calorimetry (GEM Open Circuit Indirect Calorimeter; GEMNutrition Ltd., Warrington, UK) using the protocol described by Bone and Burke ( 2018 ). Peak oxygen uptake was assessed on a motorized treadmill (h/p/cosmos; Pulsar

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Pål Haugnes, Per-Øyvind Torvik, Gertjan Ettema, Jan Kocbach and Øyvind Sandbakk

-driven treadmill (RL 2500E; Rödby, Södertälje, Sweden), with standardized procedures published previously, 21 while employing open circuit, indirect calorimetry with an Oxycon Pro apparatus (Jaeger GmbH, Höchberg, Germany). Blood lactate concentration (BLa) of 5-μL samples were taken from the fingertip and

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Michael J. Davies, Bradley Clark, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Marijke Welvaert, Christopher J. Gore and Kevin G. Thompson

using a custom-built, open-circuit, indirect calorimetry system with associated in-house software for determination of oxygen uptake. 17 The highest V ˙ O 2 averaged over a 30-second period was defined as V ˙ O 2 peak . MAP was determined as the final completed stage plus the proportion of any

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Lachlan J.G. Mitchell, Ben Rattray, Paul Wu, Philo U. Saunders and David B. Pyne

and energy expenditure using indirect calorimetry. 7 , 8 Although all these techniques are useful for tracking aerobic adaptations, the aerobic system is not the only energy pathway important for swimming performance. The anaerobic energy system contributes substantially to the majority of the

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Julian A. Owen, Matthew B. Fortes, Saeed Ur Rahman, Mahdi Jibani, Neil P. Walsh and Samuel J. Oliver

during the cycling exercise. This was calculated from indirect calorimetry during the habituation visit cycling exercise test (Cortex MetaLyzer 3B, Leipzig, Germany). On Day 1 of each trial, participants woke at 07:00 hr and drank water equal to 6 ml·kg −1 of body mass (471 [52] ml). On arrival to the

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Thomas Reeve, Ralph Gordon, Paul B. Laursen, Jason K.W. Lee and Christopher J. Tyler

:10.1152/jappl.1964.19.3.531 10.1152/jappl.1964.19.3.531 14173555 16. Burton AC . Human calorimetry. 2. The average temperature of the tissues of the body . J Nutr . 1935 ; 9 : 261 – 280 . 10.1093/jn/9.3.261 17. Borg G . Perceived exertion as an indicator of somatic stress . Scand J Rehabil

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Alan J. McCubbin, Anyi Zhu, Stephanie K. Gaskell and Ricardo J.S. Costa

-by-breath indirect calorimetry, averaged over 5 min (Vmax Encore Metabolic Cart; CareFusion, San Diego, CA) and determined from the equations of Péronnet and Massicotte ( 1991 ): Total carbohydrate oxidation: ( 4.585 × V ˙ CO 2 ) − ( 3.226 × V ˙ O 2 ) . Total fat oxidation: ( 1.695 × V ˙ O 2 ) − ( 1.701 × V ˙ CO 2