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Oladipo O. Eddo, Bryndan W. Lindsey, Shane V. Caswell, Matt Prebble and Nelson Cortes

site, where articular surface damage narrows the joint space, resulting in altered internal peak knee abductor moment (peak KAM). 7 Altered peak KAM is associated with knee OA severity, 8 cartilage degeneration/loss, 9 and static malalignment 10 and has been shown to be a reliable indicator of

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Emily R. Hunt, Cassandra N. Parise and Timothy A. Butterfield

and rehabilitation, individuals who undergo ACL–r inevitably suffer from persistent quadriceps atrophy and weakness for a long term. 6 These unresolved strength deficits decrease athletic performance, increase the risk of reinjury, 7 and likely contribute to the progression of cartilage damage

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Dana M. Lis and Keith Baar

 al., 2017 ). Interestingly, dietary proline and HC are both incorporated into the skin of rats ( Matsuda et al., 2006 ); however, HC is preferentially incorporated into musculoskeletal tissues including muscle, cartilage, and bone ( Oesser et al., 1999 ). Furthermore, supplementing with HC has been shown to

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Scott W. Cheatham, Kyle R. Stull, Mike Fantigrassi and Ian Montel

ROM during the squat when compared with controls. Increased adduction ( P  = .03) and less internal rotation ( P  = .03) were seen in subjects with FAI-CAM (with and without cartilage lesions) during the drop landing when compared with controls. No difference was found between groups for walking

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Alyssa C. Adams, Kelly B. Fleming and Patricia M. Tripp

a stable hip joint. Hip dysplasia is a congenital condition in which the head of the femur is not adequately covered by the acetabulum. Dysplasia creates a smaller surface area for the femur, which increases the load placed on the hip socket and can lead to degeneration of the articular cartilage

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in the Research Report by Wikstrom et al., higher vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) loading rates cause more chondrocyte death and cartilage matrix damage. a. True b. False 13. In this study, participants with chronic ankle instability (CAI) demonstrated significantly higher vGRF loading rates

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Özlem Aslan, Elif Balevi Batur and Jale Meray

not clearly understood even today. However, mechanical trauma, genetic factors, and cytokines are thought to be effective in pathogenesis. Due to these factors, a degenerative cascade is initiated which causes joint cartilage damage. However, ineffective repairment of joint damage—which was caused by

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Christopher M. Saliba, Allison L. Clouthier, Scott C.E. Brandon, Michael J. Rainbow and Kevin J. Deluzio

.J. Brown, A.C. Clansey, and A. VanBerlo were instrumental in the collection of experimental data. Funding for this study was provided by NSERC . The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose. References 1. Felson DT . Osteoarthritis as a disease of mechanics . Osteoarthritis Cartilage . 2013

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Abbey C. Thomas, Janet E. Simon, Rachel Evans, Michael J. Turner, Luzita I. Vela and Phillip A. Gribble . Accessed July 2, 2013. 2. Muthuri SG , McWilliams DF , Doherty M , Zhang W . History of knee injuries and knee osteoarthritis: a meta-analysis of observational studies . Osteoarthritis Cartilage . 2011 ; 19 ( 11 ): 1286 – 1293 . PubMed ID: 21884811 doi:10.1016/j

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Kentaro Chino and Hideyuki Takahashi

, skins, subcutaneous tissue, fascia, ligaments, joint capsule, and cartilage. 3 When resting muscles are passively stretched, passive resistance is induced by several structures within muscles, including actin and myosin filaments, sarcomere cytoskeletons, and connective tissues. 4 As variations in