environmental interventions in team sport athletes. Therefore, the aim of this case study was to compare hematological responses with altitude and heat interventions in elite Australian Football (AF) players. Methods A total of 43 AF players were tracked over 3 preseasons (November 2011–March 2014). Twenty
Blake D. McLean, Kevin White, Christopher J. Gore and Justin Kemp
Kadhiresan R. Murugappan, Michael N. Cocchi, Somnath Bose, Sara E. Neves, Charles H. Cook, Todd Sarge, Shahzad Shaefi and Akiva Leibowitz
performed at BIDMC. References Anzalone , M.L. , Green , V.S. , Buja , M. , Sanchez , L.A. , Harrykissoon , R.I. , & Eichner , E.R. ( 2010 ). Sickle cell trait and fatal rhabdomyolysis in football training: A case study . Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 42 ( 1 ), 3 – 7 . PubMed ID
Ed Maunder, Andrew E. Kilding, Christopher J. Stevens and Daniel J. Plews
A common practice amongst endurance athletes is to purposefully train in hot environments during a ‘heat stress camp’. However, combined exercise-heat stress poses threats to athlete wellbeing, and therefore heat stress training has the potential to induce maladaptation. This case study describes the monitoring strategies used in a successful three-week heat stress camp undertaken by two elite Ironman triathletes, namely resting heart rate variability, self-report wellbeing, and careful prescription of training based on previously collected physiological data. Despite the added heat stress, training volume very likely increased in both athletes, and training load very likely increased in one of the athletes, whilst resting HRV and self-report wellbeing were maintained. There was also some evidence of favourable metabolic changes during routine laboratory testing following the camp. We therefore recommend that practitioners working with endurance athletes embarking on a heat stress training camp consider using the simple strategies employed in the present case study to reduce the risk of maladaptation and non-functional overreaching.
William L. Dunlop and Mark R. Beauchamp
In this article, the authors report the results of a case study examining a group-based exercise program for older adult men. The purpose of the investigation was to identify the elements of this program responsible for its appeal. Interviews, conducted with a purposely sampled subset of program members, were subject to content-analytic procedures. Participants identified social connectedness (reflected by themes of demographic homogeneity, support and care, customs and traditions, and interpersonal comparisons) and supportive leadership behaviors (constituted by communication, the provision of choice, and individualized attention) as major attractions in the program. A few participants also noted the challenge that exists when a program is seen by some as being a social program that provides opportunities for exercise and by others as an exercise program that provides opportunities for socializing. Findings are discussed in relation to contextual factors associated with older adult men’s involvement in physical activity programs.
Mayur K. Ranchordas, Laurent Bannock and Scott L. Robinson
Professional soccer players are exposed to large amounts of physiological and psychological stress, which can increase infection risk and threaten availability for training and competition. Accordingly, it is important for practitioners to implement strategies that support player well-being and prevent illness. This case study demonstrates how a scientifically supported and practically applicable nutrition and lifestyle strategy can reduce infection incidence in an illness-prone professional soccer player. In the 3 months before the intervention, the player had 3 upper-respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and subsequently missed 3 competitive matches and 2 weeks’ training. He routinely commenced morning training sessions in the fasted state and was estimated to be in a large daily energy deficit. Throughout the 12-week intervention, the amount, composition, and timing of energy intake was altered, quercetin and vitamin D were supplemented, and the player was provided with a daily sleep and hygiene protocol. There was a positive increase in serum vitamin D 25(OH) concentration from baseline to Week 12 (53 n·mol-1 to 120 n·mol-1) and salivary immunoglobulin-A (98 mg·dl-1 to 135 mg·dl-1), as well as a decline in the number of URTI symptoms (1.8 ± 2.0 vs. 0.25 ± 0.5 for Weeks 0–4 and Weeks 8–12, respectively). More important, he maintained availability for all training and matches over the 12-week period. We offer this case study as a real-world applied example for other players and practitioners seeking to deploy nutrition and lifestyle strategies to reduce risk of illness and maximize player availability.
Wendy A. Pethick, Holly J. Murray, Rob J. Gathercole and Gord G. Sleivert
This case study examines the longitudinal jump data of 1 male and 1 female world-class mogul skier over the course of a quadrennial leading to the 2010 Winter Olympics. Between-subjects standard deviation, smallest worthwhile enhancement, % coefficient of variance, and effect size (ES) were calculated from team jump testing taking place immediately preceding the 2010 Winter Olympics, as this was deemed the point in the quadrennial that the athlete group would be most likely near their best performance. These data were then used to characterize the progression of explosive power of elite mogul skiers over an Olympic quadrennial. Jump data for both the male and the female athlete showed trivial to large improvements in jump performance from Q1 (quadrennial year 1) to Q2, variable changes in performance from Q2 to Q4, and an overall improvement (small to large ES) from Q1 to Q4. Explosive power is a critical component of performance for moguls, and an analysis of the group data (Canadian athletes 2006–2010) shows that of all performance markers, jump testing is the variable that clearly delineates between World Cup and developmental athletes.
Carla Cox, Steven Gaskill, Brent Ruby and Sharon Uhlig
The purpose of the present case study was threefold: (a) to estimate intake and expenditure of a dog driver (musher) while participating in the Iditarod, (b) to determine the hydration status of the musher at the completion of the event, and (c) to evaluate training related changes in aerobic capacity and body composition of a long-distance dog sled driver in preparation for and following completion of a 1049-mile (1692-km) sled dog race. Actual energy intake during the Iditarod Sled Dog Race was estimated at 8,921 kilojoules (kJ) per day. Nutrient intake expressed as percentage kJ of total energy (14%, 44% and 42% for protein, carbohydrates, and fat, respectively). Weight loss of .72 kg of body weight indicated an energy deficit of 1819 kJ per day during the race. Total energy needs per day were calculated to be 10,740 kJ/day. An increase in hematocrit and hemoglobin during the race may indicate dehydration during the event. There was an improvement in aerobic fitness during on-snow training as determined by ventilatory threshold and VO2peak data. Fat-free mass was maintained during training (46.4 kg), with a concomitant decrease in fat (2.4 kg). Fat-free mass was also maintained during the 12-day race.
Michal Kumstát, Silvie Rybářová, Andy Thomas and Jan Novotný
The nutritional intake of elite open water swimmers during competition is not well established, and therefore this case study aims to provide new insights by describing the feeding strategies adopted by an elite female swimmer (28 yrs; height; 1.71 m; body mass: 60 kg; body fat: 16.0%) in the FINA open water Grand Prix 2014.Seven events of varying distances (15–88 km) and durations (3–12 hrs) were included. In all events, except one, feeds were provided from support boats. Swimmer and support staff were instructed to track in detail all foods and beverages consumed during the events. Nutritional information was gathered from the packaging and dietary supplements labels and analyzed by nutrition software. Mean carbohydrate (CHO) and protein intake reached 83 ± 5 g·h-1 and 12 ± 8 g·h-1, respectively. Fat intake was neglected (~1 g·h-1). Mean in-race energy intake reached 394 ± 26 kcal·h-1. Dietary supplements in the form of sport beverages and gels, containing multitransportable CHO, provided 40 ± 4 and 49 ± 6% of all CHO energy, respectively. Caffeine (3.6 ± 1.8 mg·kg-1 per event) and sodium (423 ± 16 mg·h-1) were additionally supplemented in all events. It was established that continuous intake of high doses of CHO and sodium and moderate dose of caffeine were an essential part of the feeding strategy for elite-level high intensity ultra-endurance open-water swimming races. A well scheduled and well-prepared nutrition strategy is believed to have ensured optimal individual performance during Grand Prix events.
Jordan Milsom, Paulo Barreira, Darren J. Burgess, Zafar Iqbal and James P. Morton
The onset of injury and subsequent period of immobilization and disuse present major challenges to maintenance of skeletal muscle mass and function. Although the characteristics of immobilization-induced muscle atrophy are well documented in laboratory studies, comparable data from elite athletes in free-living conditions are not readily available. We present a 6-month case-study account from a professional soccer player of the English Premier League characterizing rates of muscle atrophy and hypertrophy (as assessed by DXA) during immobilization and rehabilitation after ACL injury. During 8 weeks of inactivity and immobilization, where the athlete adhered to a low carbohydrate-high protein diet, total body mass decreased by 5 kg attributable to 5.8 kg loss and 0.8 kg gain in lean and fat mass, respectively. Changes in whole-body lean mass was attributable to comparable relative decreases in the trunk (12%, 3.8 kg) and immobilized limb (13%, 1.4 kg) whereas the nonimmobilized limb exhibited smaller declines (7%, 0.8 kg). In Weeks 8 to 24, the athlete adhered to a moderate carbohydrate-high protein diet combined with structured resistance and field based training for both the lower and upper-body that resulted in whole-body muscle hypertrophy (varying from 0.5 to 1 kg per week). Regional hypertrophy was particularly pronounced in the trunk and nonimmobilized limb during weeks 8 to 12 (2.6 kg) and 13 to 16 (1.3 kg), respectively, whereas the previously immobilized limb exhibited slower but progressive increases in lean mass from Week 12 to 24 (1.2 kg). The athlete presented after the totality of the injured period with an improved anthropometrical and physical profile.