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Ebrahim Norouzi, Fatemeh Sadat Hosseini, Mohammad Vaezmosavi, Markus Gerber, Uwe Pühse and Serge Brand

brain wave signals for sports performance analysis: An archery case study . Paper presented at the International Convention on Science, Education and Medicine in Sport (ICSEMIS) , Glasgow, UK . Chuang , L.-Y. , Huang , C.-J. , & Hung , T.-M. ( 2013 ). The differences in frontal midline theta

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Jessica M. Lutkenhouse

The present case study illustrates the treatment of a 19-year-old female lacrosse player, classified as experiencing Performance Dysfunction (Pdy) by the Multilevel Classification System for Sport Psychology (MCS-SP). The self-referred collegiate athlete was treated using the manualized Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) protocol (Gardner & Moore, 2004a, 2007). The intervention consisted of eight individual sessions and several follow-up contacts via e-mail. The majority of the sessions addressed clinically related and sport-related concerns, including difficulties in emotion regulation and problematic interpersonal relationships. Based on self-report, coach report, and one outcome assessment measure, the psychological intervention resulted in enhanced overall behavioral functioning and enhanced athletic performance. This case study suggests that following careful case formulation based on appropriate assessment and interview data, the MAC intervention successfully targeted the clearly defined psychological processes underlying the athlete’s performance concerns and personal obstacles, thus resulting in enhanced well-being and athletic performance improvements.

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Donna L. Goodwin, Joan Krohn and Arvid Kuhnle

This phenomenological case study sought to understand the wheelchair dance experiences of five children (ages 6-14 years) with spina bifida. The experiences of one boy and four girls were captured using the phenomenological methods of semistructured interviews, journals, visual artifacts, and field notes. The perspectives of their parents were also gathered. The dancer data and parent data were analyzed separately, revealing four common themes: unconditional acceptance, a dream comes true, beyond the wheelchair, and a stronger self. The experience of dancing from a wheelchair was interpreted and understood by reflecting upon the concepts of ableism, dualism, and the minded body.

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H. Jan Dordel

Individuals with severe physical and psychomotor modifications after a brain injury need measures of motor training beyond the usual physiotherapy. The effects of an intensive mobility training in the phase of late rehabilitation are reported in two case studies. The coordinative and conditional progresses were controlled by the methods of photographic anthropometry, light-track registration, and bicycle ergometry. Improvements were found in posture and dynamic endurance in correlation with the generally improving motor control. Tests of everyday relevant movements revealed qualitative progresses in the sense of increased motor precision and economy.

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John Mahoney and Stephanie J. Hanrahan

The purpose of this study was to research the experiences of four injured athletes during their rehabilitation from ACL injuries and to examine the potential usefulness of an adapted ACT intervention in addressing individuals’ adherence to rehabilitation protocols and their general psychological well-being. We investigated the usefulness of a brief, 4-session ACT program adapted for educational purposes and presented data as case studies. The case studies suggested that (a) the injured athletes experienced a multitude of private events immediately following injury, throughout their recovery, and when approaching a full return to sport; (b) the injured athletes typically avoided these private events and engaged in emotion-driven behaviors; (c) an adapted ACT approach for educational purposes could be useful on at least a basic level to help injured athletes accept private events, commit to rehabilitation behaviors, and have some certainty about returning to sport; and (d) more could be done to address the needs of injured athletes beyond the structure of our 4-session educational intervention. We concluded that the ACT-based intervention, to a certain extent, educated injured athletes about how to meet the challenges of their recoveries and how to commit to their rehabilitations, as well as to exhibit behaviors that would potentially permit their successful reentries to sport.

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Iva Obrusníková, Hana Válková and Martin E. Block

The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the impact of including a student who uses a wheelchair and is given no direct support in a 4th grade general physical education (GPE) class on students without disabilities. Using an evaluate case study research method, data were collected in the beginning and end of a 2-week GPE volleyball unit from 2 intact elementary school classes using 2 attitude inventories, volleyball skills, and knowledge test. Results indicated no significant class difference in volleyball skill and knowledge acquisitions. Overall, attitudes toward including a student with a disability tended to be positive in both classes. In addition, there was no significant time difference within the classes on either attitude inventory.

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Pilvikki Heikinaro-Johansson, Claudine Sherrill, Ronald French and Heikki Huuhka

The purpose of this research was to develop and test an adapted physical education consultant model to assist regular elementary school classroom teachers to include children with special needs into regular physical education. The consultation model consisted of (a) Level 1, conducting a needs assessment, (b) Level 2, designing/implementing the program, and (c) Level 3, evaluating the program. The model was tested in two communities in Finland using the intensive and the limited consulting approaches. Data collection methods included videotaped observations of teacher and students, interviews, dialogue at interdisciplinary team meetings, and journals. Results are presented as case studies, which describe the process and product over a 2-month period of model implementation. Analysis of data indicate that classroom teachers, paraprofessionals, and students benefited from the consultant model. The adapted physical education consultant model appears to be a viable approach in facilitating the integration of children with special needs.

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Catarina Sousa, Ronald E. Smith and Jaume Cruz

Coach Effectiveness Training (CET) has been shown to have positive effects on a range of outcome variables, especially in young athletes (Smith & Smoll, 2005). Based on CET principles, and coupled with behavioral feedback, an individualized goal-setting intervention was developed and assessed using a replicated case study approach. Outcome variables included observed, athlete-perceived, and coach-perceived behaviors measured before the intervention and late in the season, as well as coaches’ evaluations of the intervention. Four soccer coaches selected three target behaviors that they wished to improve after viewing videotaped behavioral feedback. Behavioral assessment revealed that two of the coaches achieved positive changes on all three of their targeted behaviors. A third coach improved on two of the three targeted behaviors. The fourth coach did not achieve any of the established goals. We conclude that this approach is sufficiently promising to warrant additional research, and we discuss strengths and limitations of the study.

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Roy J. Shephard

A quantitative hypothetico-deductive approach has continued to contribute greatly to advances in biological and medical science. Quantitative methods are adopted over other approaches primarily because they contribute the most new knowledge about biological processes. Nevertheless, investigators make many assumptions when testing a biological hypothesis quantitatively. These assumptions may become invalid unless experiments are designed with great care. Problems arise in relation to formulating appropriate hypotheses, using volunteer samples, controlling the experimental intervention and potentially interfering behaviors, reaching an acceptable level of proof, excluding alternative hypotheses, and generalizing findings beyond the immediate experimental sample. When biologists are aware of these issues, they can take appropriate countermeasures and reach valid conclusions. However, the issues become more critical and resolution is less clear-cut when the same methods are extended from biology to psychology and the social sciences, and from general to special populations. In such situations, case studies and single-subject designs may have continuing relevance.

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Kimberly Place and Samuel R. Hodge

The purpose was to describe the behaviors of eighth-grade students with and without physical disabilities relative to social inclusion in a general physical education program. Participants were 3 girls with physical disabilities and 19 classmates (11 females, 8 males) without disabilities. The method was case study. Data for a 6-week softball unit were collected using videotapes, live observations, and interviews. Findings indicated that students with and without disabilities infrequently engaged in social interactions. Average percentage of time that classmates gave to students with disabilities was 2% social talk and less than 1% in each category for praise, use of first name, feedback, and physical contact. Two themes emerged in this regard: segregated inclusion and social isolation. Students with disabilities interacted with each other to a greater degree than with classmates without disabilities. Analysis of use of academic learning time revealed different percentages for students with and without disabilities.