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Zakariya Nawasreh, David Logerstedt, Adam Marmon and Lynn Snyder-Mackler

, Snyder-Mackler L . Perturbation training improves knee kinematics and reduces muscle co-contraction after complete unilateral anterior cruciate ligament rupture . Phys Ther . 2005 ; 85 ( 8 ): 740 – 754 . PubMed ID: 16048422 16048422 25. Chu JJ , Greenwald RM , Johnson DD . Training system

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Kristi Edgar, Aimee Appel, Nicholas Clay, Adam Engelsgjerd, Lauren Hill, Eric Leeseberg, Allison Lyle and Erika Nelson-Wong

lumbar spine and hip during sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit . Spine . 2005 ; 30 ( 17 ): 1998 – 2004 . PubMed ID: 16135992 doi:10.1097/01.brs.0000176195.16128.27 16135992 10.1097/01.brs.0000176195.16128.27 37. Osu R , Franklin DW , Kato H , et al . Short- and long-term changes in joint co-contraction

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Grant E. Norte, Katherine R. Knaus, Chris Kuenze, Geoffrey G. Handsfield, Craig H. Meyer, Silvia S. Blemker and Joseph M. Hart

. Muscle activity amplitudes and co-contraction during stair ambulation following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction . J Electromyogr Kinesiol . 2015 ; 25 ( 2 ): 298 – 304 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.jelekin.2015.01.007 10.1016/j.jelekin.2015.01.007 25716325 48. Mokhtarzadeh H , Yeow CH , Hong

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Aviroop Dutt-Mazumder, Richard L. Segal and Aiko K. Thompson

), 1296 – 1304 . PubMed ID: 15134696 doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2004.01.016 10.1016/j.clinph.2004.01.016 Nielsen , J. , & Kagamihara , Y. ( 1992 ). The regulation of disynaptic reciprocal Ia inhibition during co-contraction of antagonistic muscles in man . Journal of Physiology, 456, 373 – 391

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Xin He, Hio Teng Leong, On Yue Lau, Michael Tim-Yun Ong and Patrick Shu-Hang Yung

S , Colletti PM , Powers CM . Greater muscle co-contraction results in increased tibiofemoral compressive forces in females who have undergone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction . J Orthop Res . 2012 ; 30 ( 12 ): 2007 – 2014 . PubMed ID: 22730173 doi: 10.1002/jor.22176 22730173 48

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Fatemeh Ehsani, Rozita Hedayati, Rasool Bagheri and Shapour Jaberzadeh

, and pelvic floor muscles and co-contractions of the involved muscles in the different positions and static to dynamic conditions (Table  1 ). 13 In the SE group, the therapist placed his fingers on either side of the spinous process of the lumbar vertebrae directly over the belly of the muscle to

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Susana Meireles, Neil D. Reeves, Richard K. Jones, Colin R. Smith, Darryl G. Thelen and Ilse Jonkers

contact forces in healthy subjects and patients following total knee replacement, 33 this validation cannot easily be extended to an OA population. Therefore, this model might present specific limitations when used in patients with knee OA, especially those known to present increased co-contraction

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Andrea Biscarini, Samuele Contemori and Giuditta Grolla

control by promoting proactive and reactive postural adjustments and enhancing the sensitivity of afferent feedback pathways. 17 , 19 It also promotes agonist–antagonist co-contractions with a short latency period, 17 , 19 which allows for rapid stiffening and protection of joints. 22 – 24 A recent

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Louise M. Burke, Graeme L. Close, Bronwen Lundy, Martin Mooses, James P. Morton and Adam S. Tenforde

. , Alkjaer , T. , Larsson , B. , Magnusson , S.P. , … Aagaard , P. ( 2006 ). Exercise-induced rib stress fractures: Potential risk factors related to thoracic muscle co-contraction and movement pattern . Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 16 ( 3 ), 188 – 196 . PubMed ID

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reliable scale to assess attitudes toward self-directed mobility. Our lab is currently conducting a large-scale study of pediatric physical therapists’ attitudes toward self-directed mobility. Funding source: N/A. Reduction of deltoid co-contraction during the development of arm swing control in children