Sports franchises often value prior head coaching experience as they evaluate head coaching candidates. This paper empirically tests whether prior head coaching experience affects team performance in the National Football League. Accounting for individual coach effects and other relevant factors, I find that team performance is significantly worse beyond a given coach’s initial head coaching spell. These results hold for a variety of outcome measures. While coaches with the lowest levels of success in their initial head coaching spell have the most pronounced negative experience effects, significant negative effects are estimated for coaches at all levels of initial success. One explanation for these results is that human capital acquired through head coaching experience is to a large extent firm specific, so while learning does occur within a given head coaching job, it does not carry over to future coaching spells. This can lead to an erosion of any relative human capital advantage.
John L. Fizel and Michael D’itri
Data envelopment analysis, a linear programming technique, is used to estimate an objective measure of coaching efficiency. This method is applied using the performance records of 147 Division I college basketball teams from 1984 through 1991. The results indicate a wide dispersion in coaching efficiency, with the typical coach being very inefficient relative to the best coaches in the sample. It is also shown that additional experience apparently has no effect on coaching ability. Finally, coaching efficiency estimates provide a much different assessment of coaching performance than does a coach's winning percentage. These results imply that if coaching retention is based on winning percentage rather than coaching efficiency, excellent coaches will be ignored in hiring decisions and inappropriately dismissed in firing decisions if coaching retention is based on winning percentages rather than coaching efficiency.
Packianathan Chelladurai and Etsuko Ogasawara
Male coaches from NCAA Division I (n = 297), Division III (n = 294), and Japanese universities (n = 254) responded to the Coach Satisfaction Questionnaire measuring satisfaction with supervision, coaching job, autonomy, facilities, media and community support, pay, team performance, amount of work, colleagues, athletes’ academic performance, and job security; and Blau, Paul, and St. John's (1993) General Index of Work Commitment. Japanese coaches expressed significantly lower satisfaction than American coaches with seven facets (supervision, coaching job, autonomy, team performance, colleagues, athletes' academic performance, and job security). American coaches were significantly more committed to their occupation than the Japanese coaches who were significantly more committed to their organizations than American coaches.
Alexandra J. Rankin-Wright, Kevin Hylton and Leanne Norman
The article examines how UK sport organizations have framed race equality and diversity, in sport coaching. Semistructured interviews were used to gain insight into organizational perspectives toward ‘race’, ethnicity, racial equality, and whiteness. Using Critical Race Theory and Black feminism, color-blind practices were found to reinforce a denial that ‘race’ is a salient factor underpinning inequalities in coaching. The dominant practices employed by key stakeholders are discussed under three themes: equating diversity as inclusion; fore fronting meritocracy and individual agency; and framing whiteness. We argue that these practices sustain the institutional racialised processes and formations that serve to normalize and privilege whiteness. We conclude that for Black and minoritised ethnic coaches to become key actors in sport coaching in the UK ‘race’ and racial equality need to be centered in research, policy and practice.
Cathy D. Lirgg, Ro Dibrezzo and Angie N. Smith
The decline in number of female coaches has been a serious concern of women in sport. This study investigated whether gender of coach would influence high school female basketball players specifically in relation to their future coaching self-efficacy, the level of competition at which they might choose to coach, and their ideas about the purposes of basketball. Results revealed that gender of coach did not influence self-efficacy for coaching but did influence level of competition. Perceived playing ability was found to be the strongest predictor of future coaching self-efficacy. In addition, some differences were found between male- and female-coached athletes and between male and female coaches concerning perceived purposes of basketball.
James H. Frey
In light of the pervasiveness of sport betting this paper summarizes and presents data from a national study conducted by the Commission on the Review of the National Policy Toward Gambling. Data were collected from 214 coaches and 127 athletic directors from a sample of NCAA schools. Responses to Questionnaire items provided information on the perceived impact of betting and publicized point spreads on sport in general and on the behavior of coaches and players in particular. The phenomenon of sport betting is discussed in light of these attitudes.
Annelies Knoppers, Barbara Bedker Meyer, Martha E. Ewing and Linda Forrest
Data from 947 Division I college coaches in the United States were used to examine three hypotheses concerning the impact of gender ratio on the frequency of social interaction between women and men coaches. These hypotheses were based on (a) the structural perspective characterized by the politics of optimism, (b) the institutional approach associated with the politics of pessimism, and (c) the common consciousness or subculture perspective represented by the politics of transcendence. Most support was shown for the politics of pessimism, which contends that an increase of women in a male-dominated occupation is associated with rising gender boundaries and sex segregation. Results are explored in the context of gendered homosociality.
Alanna Harman and Alison Doherty
This study examined the psychological contract of volunteer youth sport coaches to determine the content, variation, and influences to its development. Interviews were conducted with 22 volunteer coaches of team sports, representing different levels of play (recreational, competitive), coaching tenure (novice, experienced), and gender (female, male), who were sampled to account for the potential variation based on these demographic factors. The findings revealed that volunteer coaches possessed both transactional and relational expectations of themselves and their club. Coaches’ most frequently cited expectations of themselves were technical expertise (transactional), and leadership (relational), while their most frequently cited expectations of the club were fundamental resources and club administration (transactional), and coach support (relational). Variation was found by different levels of play (recreational, competitive) and coaching tenure (novice, experienced). The coaches’ psychological contract was shaped predominately by sources external to the club. Implications for managing the psychological contract of volunteer youth sport coaches and directions for future research are discussed.
Donna L. Pastore and William G. Meacci
This study examined the process by which female coaches of NCAA Division I, II, and III institutions are recruited, selected, and retained. A total of 501 administrators and coaches of women's teams responded to a questionnaire consisting of 22 employment process statements that elicited (a) the extent to which each process was used, and (b) the importance attached to each process by the subjects. Principal component analyses of the two data sets yielded five factors: Organizational Policies, Candidate's Experience, Informal Recruiting, Formal Recruiting, and Candidate's Credentials. A 2 × 2 × 3 × 5 (Gender × Position × Division × Use of Factors) repeated measures ANOVA showed significant two-way interaction effects for gender, position, and division. Tukey's post hoc analyses indicated that Candidate's Credentials was rated highest by all subgroups. A 2 × 2 × 3 × 5 (Gender × Position × Division × Importance of Factors) repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant two-way interaction effect for division. Tukey's post hoc analyses indicated that respondents rated Candidate's Credentials and Organizational Policies highest.
Nicole M. LaVoi, Jennifer E. McGarry and Leslee A. Fisher
This collection of articles about and for women in sport coaching provides more evidence of the occupational landscape and experiences of women. As with countless empirical articles before, the eight articles in this special issue of Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal (WSPAJ) further