Falls can impair health and reduce quality of life among older adults. Although many factors are related to falling, few analyses examine causal models of this behavior. In this study, factors associated with falling were explored simultaneously using structural-equation modeling. A variety of cognitive, physical-performance, and health measures were administered to 694 older adult drivers from the state of Maryland. The observed and latent variables of age, cognitive ability, physical functioning, health, and falling behavior were used to create a causal model. The model revealed that being older was associated with declines in cognition, and such cognitive declines predicted increased falling. Similarly, poorer health was related to poorer physical functioning, which, in turn, also predicted increased falling. This model indicates that in addition to existing fall-prevention interventions aimed at improving physical functioning, interventions to improve cognition and health might also be effective. It is speculated that fear of falling, which often results in reduced mobility among older adults, might account for the lack of a direct relationship between age and falling. This hypothesis should be examined in further research.
David E. Vance, Karlene K. Ball, Daniel L. Roenker, Virginia G. Wadley, Jerri D. Edwards and Gayla M. Cissell
Kelly Lynn Mulvey, Sally Taunton, Adam Pennell and Ali Brian
. Development and Psychopathology, 20 , 821 – 843 . PubMed ID: 18606033 doi:10.1017/S0954579408000394 10.1017/S0954579408000394 Blair , C. ( 2002 ). School readiness. Integrating cognition and emotion in a neurobiological conceptualization of children’s functioning at school entry . American
Renata V. Pedroso, Carlos Ayán, Francisco J. Fraga, Thays M.V. da Silva, José M. Cancela and Ruth F. Santos-Galduròz
the afternoon and morning, respectively, and in a quiet environment. The assessment instruments used in this study were recommended for assessment of cognition and physical performance in older adults with dementia ( Bossers et al., 2012 ). Cognitive evaluation For a full cognitive assessment, a
Robert E. Dustman, Rita Emmerson and Donald Shearer
Findings from three research paradigms that employed aerobic exercise as an independent variable were used to test the hypothesis that aerobic exercise improves cognitive-neuropsychological functioning. The research paradigms were animal intervention studies, cross-sectional human studies, and human intervention studies. Results from studies of animals, usually rodents, provide consistent evidence that aerobic fitness is associated with improved neurobiological and behavioral functioning. Cross-sectional studies with humans indicate a strong positive association between physical activity level and cognitive-neuropsychological performance. However, results from these studies must be interpreted cautiously, as individuals who elect to exercise or not exercise may differ on other variables that could influence cognitive-neuropsychological performance. To date, human intervention studies have not consistently demonstrated cognitive-neuropsychological improvements following exercise training. To satisfactorily test the exercise/cognition hypothesis with humans, carefully controlled intervention studies that last longer than those previously employed are needed.
Peter R.E. Crocker, Rikk B. Alderman, F. Murray and R. Smith
Cognitive-Affective Stress Management Training (SMT) is a coping skills training program designed to help athletes control dysfunctional stress processes (Smith, 1980). The present quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of SMT on affect, cognition, and performance in high performance youth volleyball players. Members of Alberta's Canada Games men's and women's (under 19 years of age) volleyball teams were assigned to either an experimental treatment group or a waiting-list control group. The treatment program consisted of eight modules, approximately 1 week apart, that allowed subjects to learn and apply somatic and cognitive coping skills. The results indicated that the treatment group emitted fewer negative thoughts in response to videotaped stressors and had superior service reception performance in a controlled practice compared to the control group. There were no interpretable differences between groups for either state anxiety (CSAI-2) or trait anxiety (SCAT). The cognitive and performance measures provided converging support for Smith's program. The results are discussed in terms of coping skills training, theoretical issues regarding the measurement of anxiety, and possible affect-cognition system independence.
Eeva Aartolahti, Sirpa Hartikainen, Eija Lönnroos and Arja Häkkinen
This study was conducted to determine the characteristics of health and physical function that are associated with not starting strength and balance training (SBT). The study population consisted of 339 community-dwelling individuals (75–98 years, 72% female). As part of a population-based intervention study they received comprehensive geriatric assessment, physical activity counseling, and had the opportunity to take part in SBT at the gym once a week. Compared with the SBT-adopters, the nonadopters (n = 157, 46%) were older and less physically active, had more comorbidities and lower cognitive abilities, more often had sedative load of drugs or were at the risk of malnutrition, had lower grip strength and more instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) difficulties, and displayed weaker performance in Berg Balance Scale and Timed Up and Go assessments. In multivariate models, higher age, impaired cognition, and lower grip strength were independently associated with nonadoption. In the future, more individually-tailored interventions are needed to overcome the factors that prevent exercise initiation.
Vagner D.O. Tavares, Kell G. da Costa, Daniel A.R. Cabral, Maria L.M. Rego, Menna Price and Eduardo B. Fontes
cardiorespiratory fitness independently predicts reaction time for general and drug-specific inhibitory control, which indicates the possible benefits of having higher cardiorespiratory fitness on cognition for individuals with SUD. Several studies have demonstrated the benefits of cardiorespiratory fitness on
Alexander T. Latinjak
? Consciousness and Cognition, 22 , 1412 – 1421 . doi:10.1016/j.concog.2013.09.012 10.1016/j.concog.2013.09.012 Seli P. , Carriere J.S. , Levene M. , & Smilek D. ( 2013 ). How few and far between? Examining the effects of probe rate on self-reported mind wandering . Frontiers in Psychology, 4
Nicholas E. Fears and Jeffrey J. Lockman
, M.M. ( 2000 ). Vision using routines: A functional account of vision . Visual Cognition, 7 ( 1–3 ), 43 – 64 . doi:10.1080/135062800394676 10.1080/135062800394676 Hayhoe , M.M. , Shrivastava , A. , Mruczek , R. , & Pelz , J.B. ( 2003 ). Visual memory and motor planning in a natural
Ming Fung Godfrey Lui, Hung Kay Daniel Chow, Wai Ming Kenny Wong and Wai Nam William Tsang
tasks (see also Slotten & Krekling, 1996 ). Both impaired balance control and impaired cognition are risk factors for falls in older adults ( Rubenstein & Josephson, 2002 ). In daily life, people often handle two or more tasks concurrently, but general attentional capacity decreases with age ( Huxhold