This study examined the efficacy of a progressive resistance exercise program, using equal concentric/eccentric (CE) or greater eccentric/concentric (GE) workloads, for increasing strength and improving functional abilities of community-dwelling older adults. Sixty men and women were randomly assigned to one of three groups: CE, GE, or control. All strength testing and training took place on six Lifecircuit machines. Functional tests included a bas carry, weighted stair climb, shelf task 1-RM, and static balance. Significant interactions in strength tests were noted for the chest, back, and shoulder exercises. GE improved in shoulder strength more than CE and control For functional measures, all weight trainers were grouped and compared to controls. A significant interaction occurred for the stair climb and balance with the exercise groups decreasing stair climb time by 11% and increasing balance time by 26%. Relative improvements by weight trainers of 12% for the shelf task and 7% for the bag carry were not significant. These data indicate that a moderate intensity resistance program can have positive effects on tasks required for everyday function.
Jeanne F. Nichols, Lori M. Hitzelberger, Jennifer G. Sherman and Patricia Patterson
Martin G. Jorgensen, Uffe Laessoe, Carsten Hendriksen, Ole B.F. Nielsen and Per Aagaard
The aims of the current study were to examine the intrarater intersession reproducibility of the Nintendo Wii agility and stillness tests and explore the concurrent validity in relation to gold-standard force-plate analysis. Within-day intersession reproducibility was examined in 30 older adults (age 71.8 ± 5.1 yr). No systematic test–retest differences were found for the Wii stillness test; however, the Wii agility test scores differed systematically between test sessions (p < .05). The Wii stillness test yielded a test–retest ICC of .86 (95% CI 0.74–0.93), CV of 6.4%, LOA of 11.0, and LOA% of 17.9%. Likewise for the Wii agility test ICC was .73 (95% CI 0.50-0.86), CV 5.3%, LOA 1.8, and LOA% of 14.6%. Wii stillness scores correlated to force plate measures (r = .65–.82, p < .01), reflecting moderate to excellent validity. In conclusion, it appears that the Wii stillness test represents a low-cost, objective, reproducible, and valid test of undisturbed postural balance in community-dwelling older adults.
Mieko Yokozuka, Chie Miki, Makoto Suzuki and Rieko Katsura
purpose of this study was to determine whether there is an association between toe flexor strength and the amount of activity in daily life in community-dwelling older adults. Methods Participants This cross-sectional study was carried out from February to June 2018. We recruited 68 participants who
Renata M. Bielemann, Marysabel P.T. Silveira, Bárbara H. Lutz, Vanessa I.A. Miranda, Maria Cristina Gonzalez, Soren Brage, Ulf Ekelund and Andréa Dâmaso Bertoldi
vigorous-intensity aerobic PA, or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity aerobic activity. 18 Thus, this study is aimed to examine the association between objectively measured PA by accelerometry and polypharmacy among community-dwelling older adults with multimorbidity in Pelotas
Lauren M. Robins, Ted Brown, Aislinn F. Lalor, Rene Stolwyk, Fiona McDermott and Terry Haines
regardless of the reason for admission, and were being discharged to a community-dwelling home. Health service patients were excluded if deemed to be cognitively impaired or were being discharged to a hospital, residential aged care facility or a home more than 30 km from the participating health services
Andrew H. Huntley, John L. Zettel and Lori Ann Vallis
A simultaneous turn and step motion is a vital component of many complex movements and may provide insight into age related balance and stability deficits during a weight transfer task. In this study, nine young adults and ten healthy, community dwelling older adults performed a simultaneous “turn and step” task from a quiet standing position under two self-selected speeds, self-paced and as quickly and efficiently as possible. Whole-body center of mass was estimated to investigate stability, segmental coordination, and variability. Older adults performed the task with greater variability, however they were unable to alter stability nor segmental coordination across the self-selected speeds; absence of this modulation portrays a trade-off between stability and manoeuvrability. An increase in variability with no observed directional differences suggests that the simultaneous turn and step task may be a sensitive discriminatory motor task helpful in elucidating the adoption of altered control strategies used by elderly populations.
Shannon Halloway, JoEllen Wilbur, Michael E. Schoeny, Pamela A. Semanik and David X. Marquez
This study examined the combined effects of sedentary behavior and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on cardiovascular health in older Latinos. In a cross-sectional sample of 147 older, community-dwelling Latinos, time spent in sedentary behavior and MVPA were obtained using accelerometers. Analyses examined the effects of a measure of physical activity that combined levels of sedentary behavior (± 10 daily hours) and MVPA (< 30, 30–150, or > 150 weekly minutes) on cardiovascular health outcomes (blood pressure, BMI, waist circumference, cardiorespiratory fitness). Results suggest that cardiovascular health benefits of MVPA on BMI (p = .005), waist circumference (p = .002), and cardiorespiratory fitness (p = .012) may depend on a participant’s level of sedentary behavior. For all three, health benefits of 30–150 weekly minutes of MVPA were found only for those without excessive sedentary behavior (≥ 10 hr). Sedentary behavior may negatively impact cardiovascular health despite moderate participation in MVPA. Health guidelines should suggest reducing sedentary behavior while increasing MVPA.
Lisa Ferguson-Stegall, Mandy Vang, Anthony S. Wolfe and Kathy M. Thomsen
Falls are a major public health concern among older adults, and most occur while walking, especially under dualtask conditions. Jaques-Dalcroze eurhythmics (JDE) is a music-based movement training program that emphasizes multitask coordinated movement. A previous 6-mo JDE study in older people demonstrated improved gait and balance; however, the effects of short-term JDE interventions on fall risk-related outcomes are largely unknown. We conducted a preliminary investigation on whether a 9-week JDE intervention improved gait and stability in a community-dwelling older cohort, hypothesizing that improvements would occur in all outcome measures.
Nine participants (78.9 ± 12.3 y) completed the supervised JDE intervention (once/week for 60 min). Gait speed was determined by the 6-m timed walk test (6MTW); dual-task gait speed was determined by another 6MTW while counting backward from 50 aloud; and coordinated stability was assessed using a Swaymeter-like device.
Gait speed (0.92 ± 0.11 vs 1.04 ± 0.12 m/sec, P = .04) and dual-task gait speed (0.77 ± 0.09 vs 0.92 ± 0.11 m/sec, P = .0005) significantly improved.
This novel intervention is an effective short-term physical activity option for those that plan physical activity or fall-risk reduction programs for the older people.
Jo-Ana D. Chase, Lorraine J. Phillips and Marybeth Brown
The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the effects of supervised resistance and/or aerobic training physical activity interventions on performance-based measures of physical functioning among community-dwelling older adults, and to identify factors impacting intervention effectiveness. Diverse search strategies were used to identify eligible studies. Standardized mean difference effect sizes (d, ES) were synthesized using a random effects model. Moderator analyses were conducted using subgroup analyses and meta-regression. Twenty-eight studies were included. Moderator analyses were limited by inconsistent reporting of sample and intervention characteristics. The overall mean ES was 0.45 (k = 38, p ≤ .01), representing a clinically meaningful reduction of 0.92 s in the Timed Up and Go for treatment versus control. More minutes per week (p < .01) and longer intervention session duration (p < .01) were associated with larger effects. Interventions were especially effective among frail participants (d = 1.09). Future research should clearly describe sample and intervention characteristics and incorporate frail populations.
Mandy Peacock, Julie Netto, Polly Yeung, Joanne McVeigh and Anne-Marie Hill
association between pet ownership and incidental and purposeful PA during daily living among older community-dwelling adults. Methods Design A convergent, parallel mixed methods research design was used, which took an exploratory approach. This design allowed quantitative and qualitative data pertaining to