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Jeremiah J. Peiffer, Chris R. Abbiss, Eric C. Haakonssen and Paolo Menaspà

variable nature of competition. 1 , 6 A greater understanding of this variability is important to more accurately quantify training and racing load, thereby informing the development of more efficient and effective training and racing strategies. Studies examining the physical demands of cycling have

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Luis Rodriguez and Santiago Veiga

Open water swimming events have become much more popular since the 10-km races were included in the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing. As a result, the number of open water competitions and international swimmers competing in those events has notably increased. 1 For example, the number of

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Kieran Cooke, Tom Outram, Raph Brandon, Mark Waldron, Will Vickery, James Keenan and Jamie Tallent

There are 3 formats of professional domestic cricket in the United Kingdom. Multiday cricket is a minimum of 96 overs per day, for up to 4 days. One-day cricket is played in both a 50-over and 20-over competition. Alongside the demands of training, an in-season period can become clustered and

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Robert J. Schinke, Stephanie Hanrahan, Duke Peltier, Ginette Michel, Richard Danielson, Patricia Pickard, Chris Pheasant, Lawrence Enosse and Mark Peltier

This study was designed to elucidate the pre-competition and competition practices of elite Canadian Aboriginal athletes. Elite Canadian Aboriginal athletes (N = 23) participated in semi-structured interviews. Data were segmented into meaning units by academic and Aboriginal community-appointed members, and verified with each respondent individually through mail and a password-protected website. Competition tactics were divided into three chronological stages, each with specific athlete strategies: (a) general training before competitions, (b) pre-competition week, and (c) competition strategies. The majority of the numerous strategies they reported could be considered as reflecting native traditions, appropriate attitudes/perspective, or standard sport psychology techniques. Suggestions are proposed for applied researchers and practitioners working with cultural populations, as well as how these strategies might be developed for use with other populations.

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Paul G. Montgomery and Brendan D. Maloney

Basketball, in the 3×3 format, is a team sport characterized by high-speed accelerations, decelerations, and change of direction (CoD) in a confined playing arena. Elite 3×3 basketball competitions are often performed in a tournament scenario, where teams compete in several games in a day, and

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Joseph J. Matthews, Edward N. Stanhope, Mark S. Godwin, Matthew E.J. Holmes and Guilherme G. Artioli

Across combat sports, athletes compete in predetermined weight categories to be matched with an opponent of equal body mass, body size, strength, and power ( Franchini et al., 2012 ). However, for competition, athletes typically engage in a process called making weight, characterized by rapid

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Neil D. Clarke, Darren L. Richardson, James Thie and Richard Taylor

minutes before a race could be considered practically meaningful during actual competitions. However, athletes need to be aware that the type of coffee and the brewing method alter the caffeine and chlorogenic acid content, 10 and interindividual variation in pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic

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Dean J. McNamara, Tim J. Gabbett, Paul Chapman, Geraldine Naughton and Patrick Farhart


Bowling workload is linked to injury risk in cricket fast bowlers. This study investigated the validity of microtechnology in the automated detection of bowling counts and events, including run-up distance and velocity, in cricket fast bowlers.


Twelve highly skilled fast bowlers (mean ± SD age 23.5 ± 3.7 y) performed a series of bowling, throwing, and fielding activities in an outdoor environment during training and competition while wearing a microtechnology unit (MinimaxX). Sensitivity and specificity of a bowling-detection algorithm were determined by comparing the outputs from the device with manually recorded bowling counts. Run-up distance and run-up velocity were measured and compared with microtechnology outputs.


No significant differences were observed between direct measures of bowling and nonbowling events and true positive and true negative events recorded by the MinimaxX unit (P = .34, r = .99). The bowling-detection algorithm was shown to be sensitive in both training (99.0%) and competition (99.5%). Specificity was 98.1% during training and 74.0% during competition. Run-up distance was accurately recorded by the unit, with a percentage bias of 0.8% (r = .90). The final 10-m (–8.9%, r = .88) and 5-m (–7.3%, r = .90) run-up velocities were less accurate.


The bowling-detection algorithm from the MinimaxX device is sensitive to detect bowling counts in both cricket training and competition. Although specificity is high during training, the number of false positive events increased during competition. Additional bowling workload measures require further development.

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Jeanne Adèle Kentel and David Ramsankar

Coaches are in a strong position to lay the groundwork for positive outcomes and attitudes in sports. In this paper we attempt to uncover ways in which coaching and sport pedagogy might be informed through our perspectives as parents of two young girls. As a father and a mother from two different families we examine the complexities of competition among the young. We begin to theorize about the ways young people might contribute to the discourse about competition in sport and ways coaches, coach educators and researchers might respond to enact potential reform.

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Cesar Gallo-Salazar, Juan Del Coso, David Sanz-Rivas and Jaime Fernandez-Fernandez

Competitive tennis matches are typically composed of a best-of-3-sets format, although men’s Grand Slam and Davis Cup events require best-of-5-sets matches. In this regard, knowledge of the workload profile during competition is a fundamental precursor to effective physical conditioning programs. 1