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Sarah J. Willis, Grégoire P. Millet and Fabio Borrani

healthy active participants (5 men and 2 women; mean [SD] 26.6 [2.9] y, 74.0 [13.1] kg, 1.76 [0.09] m, 14.1% [4.9%] body fat) training ≥4 hours per week (running, cross-country skiing, swimming, climbing, cycling, resistance training) were involved in this study. The experimental protocol was approved by

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Katie E. McGibbon, Megan E. Shephard, Mark A. Osborne, Kevin G. Thompson and David B. Pyne

adopted by elite cross-country skiers . J Strength Cond Res . 2016 ; 30 ( 11 ): 3256 – 3260 . PubMed ID: 26982973 doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000001424 26982973 28. Stoggl T , Pellegrini B , Holmberg HC . Pacing and predictors of performance during cross-country skiing races: a systematic review

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Moritz Schumann, Hannah Notbohm, Simon Bäcker, Jan Klocke, Stefan Fuhrmann and Christoph Clephas

It is well accepted that regular strength training can improve the performance of endurance athletes in sports such as cycling, endurance running, cross-country skiing, and swimming. 1 These benefits are typically brought about by improvements in neuromuscular efficiency, characterized by shifts

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Nathan Hall, Brent Bradford, José da Costa and Daniel B. Robinson

in their sport. This is true, for example, for local provincial sport associations or sporting organizations related to cycling, inline skating and skateboarding, curling, and cross-country skiing. These suggestions may both reduce the perceived cost barrier and the perception of other barriers for

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Sunita Potgieter, Hattie H. Wright and Carine Smith

ergogenic effect under actual competition and field conditions, when additional factors come into play. This is supported by the similarly small performance benefit (∼4%) reported for an 8-km cross-country skiing time trial after ingestion of an identical dose to the one used in this study ( Stadheim et

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Louise M. Burke and Peter Peeling

was shown to be equally effective, when repeated, 24 hr apart, to enhance the performance of two cross-country ski time-trials ( Stadheim et al., 2014 ). This benefit occurred despite increased muscle damage and soreness from the first bout, attributed to the greater exercise effort made possible by

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Peter Peeling, Martyn J. Binnie, Paul S.R. Goods, Marc Sim and Louise M. Burke

numerous exercise modalities (i.e., cycling, running, rowing, cross-country skiing, and swimming). Studies reporting benefits typically used caffeine dosages of 3–6 mg/kg of body mass (BM), in the form of anhydrous caffeine (i.e., pill or powder form), consumed ∼60 min prior to exercise ( Ganio et

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James Hardy, Nikos Comoutos and Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis

) showed improved tennis volley execution. When positive and negative self-talk was targeted, Rushall, Hall, Roux, Sasseville, and Rushall ( 1988 ) revealed enhanced cross-country skiing performance, and Van Raalte et al.’s ( 1995 ) data yielded superior dart throwing accuracy for positive self

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Andre Koka and Heino Sildala

students were engaged in the following activities: team sports (e.g., basketball, volleyball, and football); track and field athletics; and winter sports (e.g., cross-country skiing and skating). Assessment was based on students’ activity (diligence) in classes, their effort, and personal development. All

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Stiliani Ani Chroni, Frank Abrahamsen, Eivind Skille and Liv Hemmestad

(as communicated in demands and provisions from above), may have an impact on their stress perceptions, evaluations, and consequent actions. Recently, Hansen and Andersen ( 2014 ) described coaches and support personnel for the cross-country ski athletes of Norway, as ‘sense-givers’ who influence