A 17-year-old high school football player sustained a chest contusion during football practice. He did not seek medical attention from his athletic trainer until the following day when he was referred to a physician. Radiographs were unremarkable, and he was cleared to play. There was no change in the athlete’s status, and he was referred for repeat radiographs. These, too, were unremarkable. Two weeks postinjury, the athlete was hospitalized with pneumothorax, acute respiratory distress, and pneumonia from 3 rib fractures. Relative difficulty in diagnosing this injury resulted in hospitalization with severe, life-threatening complications and may have led to death.
Markéta Schüblová and Barbara Billek-Sawhney
Laura Richardson Walton and Kevin D. Williams
An organization’s initial response to a crisis can dictate the tone of its sustained response throughout the crisis, as well as stakeholders’ reactions to the incident. When news of the deaths of professional wrestler Chris Benoit, his wife, and their 7-yr-old son broke, World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) immediately paid tribute to the superstar. A memorial show to Benoit’s career aired as investigators searched the family’s home. The investigation revealed that Benoit murdered his wife and son before taking his own life, resulting in WWE’s retraction of its earlier tributes. Furthermore, the organization had to respond to the swarm of speculation that steroids—and WWE’s lax policy on their use—were to blame. This case study analyzes WWE’s immediate response strategies to their employee’s family’s deaths and the subsequent strategies used on learning that the employee was implicated. Qualitative analysis of corporate documents and official statements seeks to provide direction regarding how similar organizations should respond in the days immediately after tragic events when employees may be implicated.
Bradford Strand, Shannon David, Katie J. Lyman and Jay M. Albrecht
The purpose of this original research was to survey high school coaches in four states in the Midwest region of the United States regarding their knowledge of first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and use of an Automated External Defibrillator (AED) as well as confidence in managing/treating emergency situations. Responses to general knowledge inquiries revealed that coaches were able to accurately answer questions related to return to play, level of consciousness, external bleeding, and cardiac arrest. However, coaches were unable to correctly answer questions specific to rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) and also misidentified information related to pediatric AED use. Because sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of death and has been linked to lack of bystander intervention, the results of this project should be considered by coaches and administrators to implement certification and continuing education for high school coaches. Finally, coaches who were certified in first aid, CPR, and AED were more confident in treating an individual who required care compared with coaches not certified. Therefore, individuals who coach at all levels of sport and recreational activities should consider formal training and certification.
Bruna C. Turi, Jamile S. Codogno, Romulo A. Fernandes, Xuemei Sui, Carl J. Lavie, Steven N. Blair and Henrique L. Monteiro
Evidence has shown that physical activity (PA) is associated with low mortality risk. However, data about reduced mortality due to PA are scarce in developing countries and the dose–response relationship between PA from different domains and all-cause mortality remains unclear. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the association of PA from different domains on all-cause mortality among Brazilian adults.
679 males and females composed the study sample. Participants were divided into quartile groups according to PA from different domains (occupational, sports, and leisure-time). Medical records were used to identify the cause of the death. Cox regression analysis was performed to determine the independent associations of PA from different domains and all-cause mortality.
During the follow-up period, 59 participants died. The most prevalent cause of death was circulatory system diseases (n = 20; 33.9% [21.8%–45.9%]). Higher scores of occupational (HR= 0.45 [95% CI: 0.20–0.97]), sports (HR= 0.44 [95% CI: 0.20–0.95]) and overall PA (HR= 0.40 [95% CI: 0.17–0.90]) were associated with lower mortality, even after adjustment for confounders.
The findings in this study showed the importance of being active in different domains to reduce mortality risk.
John M. Hoberman
In the decade following the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, the People’s Republic of China has experienced a cultural and ideological transformation unprecedented in the history of communist societies. Sport, like the arts, is a political subculture that expresses prevailing ideological trends; for this reason, the new modernization in China has mandated a new ideological interpretation of sport. Contrary to appearances, the ideological content of Maoist sport doctrine has actually been retained in post-Maoist sport ideology. What has changed is the relative degree of emphasis accorded specific ideological elements, so that these two doctrinal phases may be analyzed in terms of dominant and recessive traits. The four primary ideological variables examined in this study are competition, high-performance sport and record-setting, sportive ethics, and scientific sport.
Jeremy J. Noble, Michael B. Madson, Richard S. Mohn and Jon T. Mandracchia
Heavy episodic drinking (HED) is related to an increase in negative consequences (Wechsler, Lee, Kuo, & Lee, 2000) including approximately 599,000 unintentional injuries and 1,825 deaths annually among college students (Hingson, Edwards, Heeren, & Rosenbloom, 2009). College athletes participate in greater alcohol consumption and experience more negative consequences than their nonathlete peers (Hildebrand, Johnson, & Bogle, 2001). Protective behavioral strategies (PBS) have played a significant role in reducing alcohol-related negative consequences within the college population (Martens et al., 2004). However, little is known about PBS use within specific at-risk populations such as athletes. This study aimed to identify the relationship between alcohol consumption, the use of protective behavioral strategies, and negative consequences among intercollegiate athletes. Results indicated that PBS partially mediated the relationship between alcohol consumption and negative consequences. Implications for intercollegiate athlete intervention and prevention programs are discussed as well as limitations of the study and directions for future research.
Kenneth Meijer, Peter Bosch, Maarten F. Bobbert, Arthur J. van Soest and Peter A. Huijing
The influence of parameter values (i.e., fiber optimum lengths and moment arms) and simplification of the geometry of a Hill-type muscle model on the prediction of normalized maximal isometric knee extension moment to knee joint angle relationship was studied. For that purpose, the geometry of m. quadriceps femoris was modeled in considerable detail, and all parameter values were determined on one set of cadaver specimens that had been selected for muscular appearance. The predicted relationship was compared to that measured in human subjects over the full range of physiological knee angles, and a good correspondence was found (r = .96). The good correspondence could be attributed to the substitution of realistic parameter values into the model. Incorporating complex muscle geometry into the model resulted in a small additional improvement of the prediction. It was speculated that the variation in results of cadaver measurements among studies reflects true differences caused by individuals' levels of physical activity in the period preceding death.
Christian C. Evans, Lisa Schwarz and Minal Masihi
Sudden cardiac death in athletes may be preventable if healthcare providers perform a thorough screening of the cardiovascular system during routine athlete evaluations.
Determine the adequacy of routine screening of athletes for heart disease by athletic trainers (ATs) and physical therapists (PTs).
Design, Participants, Setting, and Methods:
National Athletic Trainers Association and Sports Physical Therapy Section members were surveyed using a stratified sampling technique via e-mail and postal mail.
ATs performed significantly higher than PTs on the composite screening score (CSS; mean of 13 items) as well as on 9 of 13 individual items. Logistic regression analysis revealed that “involvement in preparticipation screenings for sports (PPSS)” was most closely related to CSS (P < .01) and controlling for this factor in the ANOVA eliminated differences between the professions.
Clinicians working with athletes who are not involved in PPSS may not adequately screen these patients for heart disease.
Jo-Ann V. Sawatzky and Barbara J. Naimark
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between physical activity and other determinants of cardiovascular health in aging women from a health-promotion perspective. Participants (N = 206) completed a cardiovascular health-promotion profile, and various physical measures were recorded. The findings suggest that physically active aging women, especially those who exercise regularly or vigorously, have healthier cardiovascular profiles than do their less active counterparts. They were more likely to be members of a health and fitness facility, to be younger, and have higher socioeconomic status. Their diets were healthier, and their perception of their health status was more positive. Physical measures of cardiovascular health also decreased with increased levels of activity (p < .05). These findings validate physical activity promotion as an effective strategy to ameliorate the cardiovascular health profile of aging women. The study also lends support for population-based cardiovascular health-promotion strategies.
Alternative sports have been situated within backlash politics whereby subcultural or marginal representations illustrate a victimized white male. While this may be true of some sports, skateboard media fosters a sustained critique of “whiteness.” To understand the representation of white resistance in skateboarding, we must locate the sport within the larger historical context of white male rebellion found in Jack Kerouac’s On the Road (1957) and Norman Mailer’s White Negro (1957). Similar to these countercultural narratives, skateboard media represents a tension between a death of whiteness (symbolized by co-opting “blackness”) and its inevitable rebirth (through prolific marketing of white skaters). Unlike the Beats, however, the dialectics of white resistance appear in skateboard media through advertisements that are often underscored by parody, which produces its own set of complexities.