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Susan Paudel, Alice J. Owen, Stephane Heritier and Ben J. Smith

, and leisure time) and sedentary behavior (sitting time). 18 GPAQ is considered to be a suitable and acceptable instrument for measuring population-level PA 19 , 20 and is the most commonly used instrument for PA surveillance in developing countries. 21 Culturally relevant PA show cards were used to

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Alex S. Ribeiro, Luiz C. Pereira, Danilo R.P. Silva, Leandro dos Santos, Brad J. Schoenfeld, Denilson C. Teixeira, Edilson S. Cyrino and Dartagnan P. Guedes

between activity behavior and medication intake in a low-income population within a developing country. Sedentary behavior has a deleterious effect on cardiorespiratory fitness ( Eriksen, Gronbaek, Helge, & Tolstrup, 2016 ) and muscle mass and strength ( Bann et al., 2015 ), which are well known to have

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Richard Larouche, Emily F. Mire, Kevin Belanger, Tiago V. Barreira, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Mikael Fogelholm, Gang Hu, Estelle V. Lambert, Carol Maher, José Maia, Tim Olds, Vincent Onywera, Olga L. Sarmiento, Martyn Standage, Catrine Tudor-Locke, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Mark S. Tremblay and For the ISCOLE Research Group

. Broyles et al ( 7 ) previously reported a similar association between household income and anthropometric indicators. These findings are consistent with the epidemiological transition model, which suggests that lifestyle changes associated with economic growth and urbanization in developing countries

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Guy El Hajj Boutros, José A. Morais and Antony D. Karelis

It is a well-recognized fact that our society is growing older. This aging of the population is observed in developed as well as in developing countries, albeit at a faster pace in the latter ( World Health Organization [WHO], 2015 ). According to the World Health Organization, the aging of the

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Jieling Chen, Emily Joy Nicklett, Yaping He and Vivian W.Q. Lou

that rural adult residents were generally more active than urban residents ( Koyanagi et al., 2018 ). However, a comparison across studies is not always straightforward, as the domains of physical activity vary; studies in developed countries mainly capture leisure-time physical activity ( Martin et

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Talita Molinari, Tainara Steffens, Cristian Roncada, Rodrigo Rodrigues and Caroline P. Dias

aging, and this decrease becomes more evident at 60 years of age ( Doherty, 2003 ; Larsson, Grimby, & Karlsson, 1979 ). In this sense, according to the World Health Organization ( WHO, 2009 ), older adults are those who are aged 60 or older in developing countries and 65 years or older in developed

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Jing Liao, Sanmei Chen, Sha Chen and Yung-Jen Yang

 al., 2012 ; Trost et al., 2002 ). Nevertheless, the relationship between social factors and PA has yet to be fully investigated in developing countries ( Bauman et al., 2012 ), and the strength and direction of this relationship also remain inconclusive across English and French published articles

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Hananeh Younesian, Nader Farahpour, Mehrdokht Mazde, Martin Simoneau and Katia Turcot

in particular among female gender in developing countries such as Iran. 4 Up to 15.2% of the type 2 DM patients are affected by DPN at the time of diagnosis. 5 However, the detection of the exact prevalence of the DPN among DM patients depends on the stages of the disease progression, neural

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Denise Rodrigues Bueno, Maria de Fátima Nunes Marucci, Clara Suemi da Costa Rosa, Rômulo Araújo Fernandes, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira Duarte and Maria Lucia Lebão

impact related to chronic diseases constitutes a relevant concern to public health organizations, mainly in low-income and developing countries. Research has shown that physical activity practice is effective in the control of blood pressure and glucose levels ( Kaizu et al., 2014 ; Kokkinos, Giannelou

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Silvia A. González, Joel D. Barnes, Patrick Abi Nader, Dolores Susana Andrade Tenesaca, Javier Brazo-Sayavera, Karla I. Galaviz, Marianella Herrera-Cuenca, Piyawat Katewongsa, Juan López-Taylor, Yang Liu, Bilyana Mileva, Angélica María Ochoa Avilés, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Pairoj Saonuam and Mark S. Tremblay

consistent with the findings of a review on built environment and physical activity in developing countries. This review highlighted that the evidence on the built environment in Latin America has focused on crime, traffic safety, and availability of parks and open spaces, while the evidence from Middle