Stepping activities when wearing a weighted vest may enhance physical function in older persons. Using 3 weighted-vest resistance dosages, this study characterized the lower-extremity joint biomechanics associated with stepping activities in elders. Twenty healthy community-dwelling older adults, ages 74.5 ± 4.5 yrs, performed 3 trials of forward step-up and lateral step-up exercises while wearing a weighted vest which added 0% body weight (BW), 5% BW, or 10% BW. They performed these activities on a force platform while instrumented for biomechanical analysis. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to evaluate the differences in ankle, knee, and hip maximum joint angles, peak net joint moments, joint powers, and impulses among both steping activities and the 3 loading conditions. Findings indicated that the 5% BW vest increased the kinetic output associated with the exercise activities at all three lower-extremity joints. These increases ranged from 5.9% for peak hip power to 12.5% for knee extensor impulse. The application of an additional 5% BW resistance did not affect peak joint moments or powers, but it did increase the joint impulses by 4–11%. Comparisons between exercise activities, across the 3 loading conditions, indicated that forward stepping preferentially targeted the hip extensors while lateral stepping targeted the plantar flexors; both activities equally targeted the knee extensors. Weighted-vest loads of 5% and 10% BW substantially increased the mechanical demand on the knee extensors, hip extensors (forward stepping), and ankle plantar flexors (lateral stepping).
George J. Salem, Sean P. Flanagan, Man-Ying Wang, Joo-Eun Song, Stanley P. Azen and Gail A. Greendale
Guy C. Simoneau and David E. Krebs
The importance of momentum in compensating for elderly individuals’ strength deficits to achieve activities of daily living, such as rising from a chair has been demonstrated in earlier studies. Here we present a case-control study of three healthy “non-fallers” and two “frequent fallers.” All 5 elders were community-living and were tested in the gait laboratory. A four-camera Selspot system was used to obtain whole-body momentum from an 11-segment kinematic model. Ground reaction forces and kinematics were used to calculate lower extremity joint moments. With the exception of the whole-body’s angular momentum about the vertical axis, linear and angular momenta during gait were minimum during mid-single limb support and maximum near heel contact. Whole-body momentum values for individuals with a history of falls were similar to those measured in non-fallers. However, subjects with a history of falls had between 17 and 37% smaller maximum ankle and knee torque values than the subjects without a history of falls during ambulation, A comprehensive description of whole-body linear and angular momenta during steady-state gait in older individuals is presented. While whole-body momentum characteristics and magnitude were similar between fallers and non-fallers. the consequences of the lesser torque values in the fallers’ knees and ankles to generate and control this momentum warrant further investigation.
John A. Batsis, Cassandra M. Germain, Elizabeth Vásquez, Alicia J. Zbehlik and Stephen J. Bartels
Physical activity reduces mobility impairments in elders. We examined the association of physical activity on risk of subjective and objective physical function in adults with and at risk for osteoarthritis (OA).
Adults aged ≥ 60 years from the longitudinal Osteoarthritis Initiative, a prospective observational study of knee OA, were classified by sex-specific quartiles of Physical Activity Score for the Elderly scores. Using linear mixed models, we assessed 6-year data on self-reported health, gait speed, Late-Life Function and Disability Index (LLFDI) and chair stand.
Of 2252 subjects, mean age ranged from 66 to 70 years. Within each quartile, physical component (PCS) of the Short Form-12 and gait speed decreased from baseline to follow-up in both sexes (all P < .001), yet the overall changes across PASE quartiles between these 2 time points were no different (P = .40 and .69, males and females, respectively). Decline in PCS occurred in the younger age group, but rates of change between quartiles over time were no different in any outcomes in either sex. LLFDI scores declined in the 70+ age group. Adjusting for knee extensor strength reduced the strength of association.
Higher physical activity is associated with maintained physical function and is mediated by muscle strength, highlighting the importance of encouraging physical activity in older adults with and at risk for OA.
Dennis Wayne Klima, Catherine Anderson, Dina Samrah, Dipal Patel, Kevin Chui and Roberta Newton
While considerable research has targeted physical performance in older adults, less is known about the ability to rise from the floor among community-dwelling elders. The purposes of the study were to (1) examine physical performance correlates of timed supine to stand performance and (2) identify the predominant motor pattern used to complete floor rise. Fifty-three community-dwelling adults over the age of 60 (x = 78.5 ± 8.5; 36 [68%] females) performed a timed supine to stand test and physical performance assessments. Forty-eight subjects (90.6%) demonstrated an initial roll with asymmetrical squat sequence when rising to stand. Supine to stand performance time was significantly correlated with all physical performance tests, including gait speed (r = −.61; p < .001), grip strength (r = −.30; p < .05), and Timed Up and Go (TUG) performance (r = .71; p < .001). Forty-eight percent of the variance in rise time (p < .001) was attributed to TUG velocity. Findings serve to enhance both functional performance assessment and floor rise interventions.
Kim Gammage, Desi McEwan, Lori Dithurbide, Alison Ede, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson
communities. This project was a continuation of a relationship that was developed between the research team and the communities who, together, hired local elder care coordinators to serve as critical stakeholders for the project. The elder care coordinators helped form an elder advisory committee, which
Jen D. Wong, Julie S. Son, Stephanie T. West, Jill J. Naar and Toni Liechty
, lack of participation opportunities) that older women face when participating in sports ( Dionigi & O’Flynn, 2007 ; Vertinsky, 1995 ). Informed by the key principles of the life course perspective ( Elder, Johnson, & Crosnoe, 2003 ), this qualitative study aims to describe the experience of women
Lene Levy-Storms, Lin Chen and Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris
one intervention study. Table 1 Summary of Studies Included in the Review First author and year of publication Country Study design Participants Elders’ specific needs and preferences of parks/open spaces Askari et al. ( 2015 ) Malaysia Survey N = 400, 13–80 years old Safety and security A variety of
Allyson C. Hartzell and Marlene A. Dixon
those within the self and his or her family. In addition, it considers the fact that individuals make choices regarding their careers that are based upon the data they have from these multiple levels. Life Course Perspective The life course perspective ( Elder, 1994 ) provides another excellent
Rebecca E. Hasson
recess supervisors to promote physical activity. This is concerning, as previous research has demonstrated that untrained recess supervisors may actually reduce physical activity opportunities during recess ( McKenzie, Crespo, Baquero, & Elder, 2010 ). Schools serving predominantly Latino students in
Adam J. Nichol, Edward T. Hall, Will Vickery and Philip R. Hayes
, introduced in greater detail below) which are capable of providing a novel contribution to understanding the influence of practitioners ( Elder-Vass, 2010 ). While it is impractical to attempt to present a single, unifying explanation of critical realism (CR) here, due to the complex assemblage of ideas and