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Guy C. Simoneau and David E. Krebs

The importance of momentum in compensating for elderly individuals’ strength deficits to achieve activities of daily living, such as rising from a chair has been demonstrated in earlier studies. Here we present a case-control study of three healthy “non-fallers” and two “frequent fallers.” All 5 elders were community-living and were tested in the gait laboratory. A four-camera Selspot system was used to obtain whole-body momentum from an 11-segment kinematic model. Ground reaction forces and kinematics were used to calculate lower extremity joint moments. With the exception of the whole-body’s angular momentum about the vertical axis, linear and angular momenta during gait were minimum during mid-single limb support and maximum near heel contact. Whole-body momentum values for individuals with a history of falls were similar to those measured in non-fallers. However, subjects with a history of falls had between 17 and 37% smaller maximum ankle and knee torque values than the subjects without a history of falls during ambulation, A comprehensive description of whole-body linear and angular momenta during steady-state gait in older individuals is presented. While whole-body momentum characteristics and magnitude were similar between fallers and non-fallers. the consequences of the lesser torque values in the fallers’ knees and ankles to generate and control this momentum warrant further investigation.

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David E. Krebs, Peter H. Velyvis and Mark W. Rogers

This study examined the prevalence of protective stepping and accompanying preparatory postural responses associated with lateral weight transfer (WT) while subjects attempted to sustain stationary standing. The subjects were 92 healthy young and older adults and persons with vestibular hypo-function. Force platform and whole-body-motion recordings were used to evaluate the prevalence of stepping and WT responses during stationary standing (eyes open or closed) using a semi-tandem foot position. WT components were also evaluated for volitionally requested step initiation, and as a function of support base configuration and direction of stepping among younger subjects. Only 10% of trials by subjects with bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) during semi-tandem standing with eyes closed were completed without a step, while 31% of subjects with UVH, 69% of healthy elders, and all young healthy subjects were able to stand for the entire 7-sec trials. WT responses always preceded volitional steps from a standard feet-parallel orientation but occurred in only 13% of the spontaneous steps. The prevalence of WT was influenced by the direction of volitional stepping from semi-tandem standing, but not by the initial standing width. Spontaneous stepping to maintain standing balance is a naturally occurring and prevalent behavior among older adults and persons with vestibular hypo-function during tests of quasi-static standing. Differences between volitional and spontaneous step initiation involving the prevalence of preparatory lateral WT are a complex function of motor planning, mechanical constraints, and functional context.

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Dennis Wayne Klima, Catherine Anderson, Dina Samrah, Dipal Patel, Kevin Chui and Roberta Newton

While considerable research has targeted physical performance in older adults, less is known about the ability to rise from the floor among community-dwelling elders. The purposes of the study were to (1) examine physical performance correlates of timed supine to stand performance and (2) identify the predominant motor pattern used to complete floor rise. Fifty-three community-dwelling adults over the age of 60 (x = 78.5 ± 8.5; 36 [68%] females) performed a timed supine to stand test and physical performance assessments. Forty-eight subjects (90.6%) demonstrated an initial roll with asymmetrical squat sequence when rising to stand. Supine to stand performance time was significantly correlated with all physical performance tests, including gait speed (r = −.61; p < .001), grip strength (r = −.30; p < .05), and Timed Up and Go (TUG) performance (r = .71; p < .001). Forty-eight percent of the variance in rise time (p < .001) was attributed to TUG velocity. Findings serve to enhance both functional performance assessment and floor rise interventions.

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John A. Batsis, Cassandra M. Germain, Elizabeth Vásquez, Alicia J. Zbehlik and Stephen J. Bartels

Objectives:

Physical activity reduces mobility impairments in elders. We examined the association of physical activity on risk of subjective and objective physical function in adults with and at risk for osteoarthritis (OA).

Methods:

Adults aged ≥ 60 years from the longitudinal Osteoarthritis Initiative, a prospective observational study of knee OA, were classified by sex-specific quartiles of Physical Activity Score for the Elderly scores. Using linear mixed models, we assessed 6-year data on self-reported health, gait speed, Late-Life Function and Disability Index (LLFDI) and chair stand.

Results:

Of 2252 subjects, mean age ranged from 66 to 70 years. Within each quartile, physical component (PCS) of the Short Form-12 and gait speed decreased from baseline to follow-up in both sexes (all P < .001), yet the overall changes across PASE quartiles between these 2 time points were no different (P = .40 and .69, males and females, respectively). Decline in PCS occurred in the younger age group, but rates of change between quartiles over time were no different in any outcomes in either sex. LLFDI scores declined in the 70+ age group. Adjusting for knee extensor strength reduced the strength of association.

Conclusions:

Higher physical activity is associated with maintained physical function and is mediated by muscle strength, highlighting the importance of encouraging physical activity in older adults with and at risk for OA.

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.1123/apaq.25.4.289 School Time Physical Activity of Students with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders during PE and Recess Chien-Yu Pan * 10 2008 25 4 308 321 10.1123/apaq.25.4.308 Fundamental Locomotive Activity Time Efficiency with Differently Positioning Drive-Axis Wheelchairs Among Elders Yong Tai

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Kim Gammage, Desi McEwan, Lori Dithurbide, Alison Ede, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson

communities. This project was a continuation of a relationship that was developed between the research team and the communities who, together, hired local elder care coordinators to serve as critical stakeholders for the project. The elder care coordinators helped form an elder advisory committee, which

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.4.487 Salivary s-IgA Response to Training in Functionally Limited Elders Mariane M. Fahlman * Amy L. Morgan * Nancy McNevin * Debra J. Boardley * Robert Topp * 10 2003 11 4 502 515 10.1123/japa.11.4.502 Professional Applications Physical and Psychosocial Characteristics of Older Adults Who Participate

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. Al-Herbish * Andrew C. Chukwuemeka * 8 1998 10 3 264 276 10.1123/pes.10.3.264 Sex and Ethnic Differences in Children’s Physical Activity: Discrepancies between Self-Report and Objective Measures James F. Sallis * Thomas L. McKenzie * John P. Elder * Patricia L. Hoy * Todd Galati * Charles

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Amplitude of Older Adults Justin W.L. Keogh * Steve Morrison * Rod Barrett * 1 2010 18 1 43 60 10.1123/japa.18.1.43 Interruption of Physical Activity Because of Illness in the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot Trial Edward M. Phillips * Jeffrey Katula * Michael E. Miller

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-Performance Tests to Evaluate Mobility Disability in Community-Dwelling Elders Ching-Yi Wang * Sharon L. Olson * Elizabeth J. Protas * 4 2005 13 2 184 197 10.1123/japa.13.2.184 Exercise Intervention Designed to Improve Strength and Dynamic Balance among Community-Dwelling Older Adults Ro DiBrezzo * Barbara