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Guy C. Simoneau and David E. Krebs

The importance of momentum in compensating for elderly individuals’ strength deficits to achieve activities of daily living, such as rising from a chair has been demonstrated in earlier studies. Here we present a case-control study of three healthy “non-fallers” and two “frequent fallers.” All 5 elders were community-living and were tested in the gait laboratory. A four-camera Selspot system was used to obtain whole-body momentum from an 11-segment kinematic model. Ground reaction forces and kinematics were used to calculate lower extremity joint moments. With the exception of the whole-body’s angular momentum about the vertical axis, linear and angular momenta during gait were minimum during mid-single limb support and maximum near heel contact. Whole-body momentum values for individuals with a history of falls were similar to those measured in non-fallers. However, subjects with a history of falls had between 17 and 37% smaller maximum ankle and knee torque values than the subjects without a history of falls during ambulation, A comprehensive description of whole-body linear and angular momenta during steady-state gait in older individuals is presented. While whole-body momentum characteristics and magnitude were similar between fallers and non-fallers. the consequences of the lesser torque values in the fallers’ knees and ankles to generate and control this momentum warrant further investigation.

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Dennis Wayne Klima, Catherine Anderson, Dina Samrah, Dipal Patel, Kevin Chui and Roberta Newton

While considerable research has targeted physical performance in older adults, less is known about the ability to rise from the floor among community-dwelling elders. The purposes of the study were to (1) examine physical performance correlates of timed supine to stand performance and (2) identify the predominant motor pattern used to complete floor rise. Fifty-three community-dwelling adults over the age of 60 (x = 78.5 ± 8.5; 36 [68%] females) performed a timed supine to stand test and physical performance assessments. Forty-eight subjects (90.6%) demonstrated an initial roll with asymmetrical squat sequence when rising to stand. Supine to stand performance time was significantly correlated with all physical performance tests, including gait speed (r = −.61; p < .001), grip strength (r = −.30; p < .05), and Timed Up and Go (TUG) performance (r = .71; p < .001). Forty-eight percent of the variance in rise time (p < .001) was attributed to TUG velocity. Findings serve to enhance both functional performance assessment and floor rise interventions.

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David E. Krebs, Peter H. Velyvis and Mark W. Rogers

This study examined the prevalence of protective stepping and accompanying preparatory postural responses associated with lateral weight transfer (WT) while subjects attempted to sustain stationary standing. The subjects were 92 healthy young and older adults and persons with vestibular hypo-function. Force platform and whole-body-motion recordings were used to evaluate the prevalence of stepping and WT responses during stationary standing (eyes open or closed) using a semi-tandem foot position. WT components were also evaluated for volitionally requested step initiation, and as a function of support base configuration and direction of stepping among younger subjects. Only 10% of trials by subjects with bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) during semi-tandem standing with eyes closed were completed without a step, while 31% of subjects with UVH, 69% of healthy elders, and all young healthy subjects were able to stand for the entire 7-sec trials. WT responses always preceded volitional steps from a standard feet-parallel orientation but occurred in only 13% of the spontaneous steps. The prevalence of WT was influenced by the direction of volitional stepping from semi-tandem standing, but not by the initial standing width. Spontaneous stepping to maintain standing balance is a naturally occurring and prevalent behavior among older adults and persons with vestibular hypo-function during tests of quasi-static standing. Differences between volitional and spontaneous step initiation involving the prevalence of preparatory lateral WT are a complex function of motor planning, mechanical constraints, and functional context.

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Jen D. Wong, Julie S. Son, Stephanie T. West, Jill J. Naar and Toni Liechty

, lack of participation opportunities) that older women face when participating in sports ( Dionigi & O’Flynn, 2007 ; Vertinsky, 1995 ). Informed by the key principles of the life course perspective ( Elder, Johnson, & Crosnoe, 2003 ), this qualitative study aims to describe the experience of women

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Lene Levy-Storms, Lin Chen and Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris

one intervention study. Table 1 Summary of Studies Included in the Review First author and year of publication Country Study design Participants Elders’ specific needs and preferences of parks/open spaces Askari et al. ( 2015 ) Malaysia Survey N  = 400, 13–80 years old Safety and security A variety of

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Allyson C. Hartzell and Marlene A. Dixon

those within the self and his or her family. In addition, it considers the fact that individuals make choices regarding their careers that are based upon the data they have from these multiple levels. Life Course Perspective The life course perspective ( Elder, 1994 ) provides another excellent

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Rebecca E. Hasson

recess supervisors to promote physical activity. This is concerning, as previous research has demonstrated that untrained recess supervisors may actually reduce physical activity opportunities during recess ( McKenzie, Crespo, Baquero, & Elder, 2010 ). Schools serving predominantly Latino students in

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Adam J. Nichol, Edward T. Hall, Will Vickery and Philip R. Hayes

, introduced in greater detail below) which are capable of providing a novel contribution to understanding the influence of practitioners ( Elder-Vass, 2010 ). While it is impractical to attempt to present a single, unifying explanation of critical realism (CR) here, due to the complex assemblage of ideas and

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Pedro Lopez, Mikel Izquierdo, Regis Radaelli, Graciele Sbruzzi, Rafael Grazioli, Ronei Silveira Pinto and Eduardo Lusa Cadore

were examined to detect studies potentially eligible for inclusion, and the complete search strategy used in PubMed is summarized in Table  1 . Table 1 Search Strategy #1 Frail Older [MeSh]: Elderly, Frail OR Frail Elders OR Elder, Frail OR Elders, Frail OR Frail Elder OR Functionally-Impaired Elderly

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Michael P. Corcoran, Miriam E. Nelson, Jennifer M. Sacheck, Kieran F. Reid, Dylan Kirn, Roger A. Fielding, Kenneth K.H. Chui and Sara C. Folta

 al., 2014 ). It is unclear whether a group-structured exercise-nutritional supplement program for mobility-limited residents of senior living facilities is effective and feasible when led at the facility by community volunteers or facility staff employees. The Vitality, Independence, and Vigor for Elders