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Weiyun Chen and Theresa Cone

The purpose of this study was to describe how children’s use of critical thinking skills in their movement actions was inspired and elicited by an “expert” teacher’s task design, task presentation, and instructional strategies during children’s creative dance lessons. The data sources included videotaping 16 creative dance lessons and written anecdotal descriptions. The findings indicated that by presenting sequential open-ended tasks and learning cues and providing instructional scaffolding, the teachers helped the students generate divergent and original movement responses and refinement of dance quality and expression, which are critical thinking elements.

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Jennifer S. Howard, Aaron Sciascia and Johanna M. Hoch

, we fail to consider the tremendous influence that factors unique to the patient (experiences, beliefs, expectations, etc.), environment, and social context can have on the success or failure of the treatment plan. Athletic trainers are experts on musculoskeletal conditions, but the patient is the

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Fiona Pelly, Nanna L. Meyer, Jeni Pearce, Sarah J. Burkhart and Louise M. Burke

The aim of this study was to evaluate the food provision and nutrition support at the London 2012 Olympic (OG) and Paralympic Games (PG) from the perspective of sports nutrition experts attending the event. Participants (n = 15) were asked to complete an online survey and rate on a Likert scale menu qualities, food safety, sustainability practices, nutrition labeling, and provision for cultural needs, dietary regimes and specific situations. Open-ended responses were incorporated to explore expert opinion and areas for improvement. Participants rated their overall experience of the food provision as 7.6 out of 10 (range 5 to 10), with the majority (n = 11) rating it greater than 7. The variety, accessibility, presentation, temperature, and freshness of menu items rated as average to good. A below average rating was received for recovery food and beverages, provision of food for traveling to other venues, taking suitable snacks out of the dining hall and provision of food at other venues. However, the variety and accessibility of choices for Ramadan, and provision of postcompetition food were rated highly. A number of comments were received about the lack of gluten free and lower energy/fat items. The inclusion of allergens on nutrition labeling was considered more important than nutrient content. While dietetic review of the menu in advance of the OG and PG is clearly a valuable process that has resulted in improvements in the food supply, there are still areas that need to be addressed that are currently not implemented during the event.

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Azam Baheiraei, Zeinab Hamzehgardeshi, Mohammad Reza Mohammadi, Eesa Mohammadi and AbouAli Vedadhir

Background:

Several studies have shown that physical activity decreases as the age increases. This study was for evaluating the perspectives of health sciences specialists or informants on the strategies for increasing physical activity among Iranian adolescents using Nominal Group Technique (NGT).

Methods:

a semiquantitative/qualitative methodology research using NGT for prioritizing the strategies for alleviating the physical activities among Iranian adolescents based on the opinions of health sciences experts. This study conducted in Tehran, Iran, 2011.

Results:

Overall, 16 items received scores from 2–29 and were further listed as the accepted strategies for promoting physical activity among adolescents. The most and least recommended strategies were respectively in the categories of school, neighborhood and family. This study findings show ‘the constructionist activities or strategies (eg, claim-making, image-making, myth-constructing and framing) among adolescents using main claim-makers of Iranian society, including the state-sponsored media.,’ received the highest score by all the participants of NGT.

Conclusions:

The interesting finding of this study is the special view point of the specialists to role of socioecological factors in promoting physical activity in the context of Iranian society.

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Gidon Herman, Oren Nakdimon, Pazit Levinger and Shmuel Springer

Context:

The forward-step-down (FSD) test may be used to identify underlying pathologies related to lower-extremity injuries. However, research on its interrater reliability is limited.

Objective:

To assess the interrater reliability of the FSD test with a broad cohort of clinicians and to compare the level of agreement with an expert panel.

Design:

Single-measure, interrater reliability.

Setting:

Annual conference of the Israeli Physical Therapy Society.

Participants:

15 healthy subjects who performed the FSD test and 142 physical therapists (PTs) who evaluated performance.

Methods:

Each subject performed the FSD while being videoed. Six videos were selected by an expert panel for analysis. After viewing the videos, FSD performance was rated by 142 PTs, as well as by the expert panel, using a 3-level scale.

Main Outcome Measures:

Interrater reliability determined by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and percentage of agreement with the expert panel.

Results:

Fair to good reliability and acceptable agreement were found for the entire sample of raters (ICC –.61, agreement 74%). The percentage of agreement was greater in the subgroup of raters who were familiar with the FSD than in those who were not (78.08% vs 69.32%, respectively, P = .004). Years of work experience did not affect the percentage of agreement (P = .141).

Conclusions:

Fair to good interrater reliably of the FSD test was demonstrated by a broad cohort of PTs. The findings support the clinical utility of the FSD test as an assessment tool for quality of movement.

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Karim Chamari

classical physiological variables and concepts of internal and external load. The expert practitioners’ involvement instead took us down a previously unexplored but ultimately fruitful line of exploring what happens before and after the “decisive moment” in karate combat—the moment from which one of the 2

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Daniel T. Bishop, Michael J. Wright, Robin C. Jackson and Bruce Abernethy

The aim of this study was to examine the neural bases for perceptual-cognitive superiority in a soccer anticipation task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Thirty-nine participants lay in an MRI scanner while performing a video-based task in which they predicted an oncoming opponent’s movements. Video clips were occluded at four time points, and participants were grouped according to in-task performance. Early occlusion reduced prediction accuracy significantly for all participants, as did the opponent’s execution of a deceptive maneuver; however, high-skill participants were significantly more accurate than their low-skill counterparts under deceptive conditions. This perceptual-cognitive superiority was associated with greater activation of cortical and subcortical structures involved in executive function and oculomotor control. The contributions of the present findings to an existing neural model of anticipation in sport are highlighted.

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Edward K. Coughlan, A. Mark Williams and Paul R. Ford

-Römer, 1993 ). In addition, it is predicted to be cognitively challenging and to contain interpretable feedback (for reviews, see Ericsson, 2007a , 2007b , 2015 ; Ericsson et al., 1993 ). Researchers have provided support for these predictions in case–control and cross-sectional studies by having expert

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Tom Sharpe and Andrew Hawkins

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Wade Gilbert, Diana Martinez and Sarah McCord