how the errors are reduced while performing the task under these new conditions. Examples of experimental modifications of task conditions are visual distortion or virtual force fields ( Blanchette & Bouyer, 2009 ; Inui & Hatta, 2002 ; Krakauer & Mazzoni, 2011 ; Lackner & DiZio, 2005 ; Shadmehr
Arturo Forner-Cordero, Virgínia H. Quadrado, Sitsofe A. Tsagbey and Bouwien C.M. Smits-Engelsman
Bryan L. Riemann and George J. Davies
objective strength measures, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between concentric isokinetic pushing force and SSASP performance. A secondary purpose was to conduct a method comparison analysis of limb symmetry indices (LSIs; dominant to nondominant limbs) between the SSASP
Pedro Jiménez-Reyes, Fernando Pareja-Blanco, David Rodríguez-Rosell, Mario C. Marques and Juan José González-Badillo
To determine what variables determine the differences in performance on 2 tests of squat jump (SJ) performed under light load in highly trained athletes using maximal velocity (Vmax) or flight time (FT) as the discriminating factor of SJ performance.
Thirty-two participants performed 2 maximal weighted SJs using a force platform synchronized with a linear transducer. Mean force (Fmean), mean and maximal power (Pmean, Pmax), peak force (PF), maximal rate of force development (RFDmax), and time required to attain PF (TPF) and RFDmax (TRFDmax) were analyzed. SJs were divided into 2 segments: from the initiation of force application to PF1 and from the moment after PF1 to Vmax.
Traditional significance statistics revealed significant differences in the same variables between best and worst SJs using both FT and Vmax. However, to use an approach based on the magnitude of the effect, the best SJ showed greater Pmax (83/17/0%), Pmean (85/15/0%), Fmean (71/29/0%), RFDmax1 (73/27/0%), and PF1 (53/47/0%) and lower TPF2 (0/61/39%) than the worst SJ when Vmax was used to discriminate SJ performance. However, using FT to differentiate SJ performance, no difference was observed between best and worst.
Although jump height assessed through FT is a valid measure, these results suggest that Vmax is a more sensitive variable than FT to detect differences in loaded-SJ performance.
Erik A. Wikstrom, Kyeongtak Song, Kimmery Migel and Chris J. Hass
potentially reduce PTOA prevalence. While the underlying etiology of ankle joint degeneration has not yet been elucidated, a growing body of evidence is emerging regarding possible biomechanical 6 – 8 influences on cartilage health. Vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) and vGRF loading rate, defined as the
Jan Wilke, Kristin Kalo, Daniel Niederer, Lutz Vogt and Winfried Banzer
human body are linked by means of connective tissue, and hence, a force transmission across myofascial chains has also been discussed as the underlying cause. 4 , 5 This line of evidence is supported by recent trials demonstrating the effectiveness of flexibility interventions based on myofascial
Mark L. Latash, Fan Gao and Vladimir M. Zatsiorsky
The method of multidimensional scaling was applied to matrices of finger interaction (IFM) computed for individual participants for finger force production tasks. When IFMs for young controls, elderly, and persons with Down syndrome were pooled, only two dimensions described interpersonal differences; these were related to total force and to the total amount of enslaving. When IFMs for each group were analyzed separately, subpopulation-specific dimensions were found. Potentially, this analysis can be applied to discover meaningful dimensions that reflect differences in indices of finger interaction across and within subpopulations which differ in their apparent ability to use the hand. It may also be useful for tracking changes in finger interaction that occur in the process of specialized training or motor rehabilitation.
S. Jayne Garland, Vicki L. Gray and Svetlana Knorr
Many stroke survivors have residual sensorimotor deficits that impact negatively on balance and quality of life. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the impairments in motor control following stroke and the impact of those impairments on muscle activation patterns during postural control in stroke. Motor control impairments following stroke result in force production that is slow, weak and lacking in precision making it difficult to produce a fast rate of force development with sufficient magnitude to be effective for postural responses. Whether postural perturbations require feedback or feedforward responses, there is impairment to the timing, magnitude and sequencing of muscle activation following stroke. The impairment in muscle activation is dependent on the extent of the motor control impairments and strategies used by the individuals following stroke to compensate for the impairments. The central nervous system uses a variety of mechanisms to improve the muscle activation patterns needed for the recovery of postural responses following stroke.
Jos J. de Koning, Ruud W. de Boer, Gert de Groot and Gerrit Jan van Ingen Schenau
In speed skating, performance is related to the product of the amount of work per stroke and the stroke frequency. Work per stroke is dependent on the component of the push-off force in the direction perpendicular to the gliding direction of the skate. The push-off force at different velocities was measured in three trained speed skaters. The results showed that the peak push-off force and mean force do not change at different velocities, and that the stroke time was decreased at higher velocities. It can be concluded that these speed skaters regulate their velocity not by changing the push-off force but by changing their stroke time. The shape of push-off–time curves is dependent on push-off technique and differs during straight lane and curve skating.
Tyler J. Kirby, Jeffrey M. McBride, Tracie L. Haines and Andrea M. Dayne
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between relative net vertical impulse and jump height in a countermovement jump and static jump performed to varying squat depths. Ten college-aged males with 2 years of jumping experience participated in this investigation (age: 23.3 ± 1.5 years; height: 176.7 ± 4.5 cm; body mass: 84.4 ± 10.1 kg). Subjects performed a series of static jumps and countermovement jumps in a randomized fashion to a depth of 0.15, 0.30, 0.45, 0.60, and 0.75 m and a self-selected depth (static jump depth = 0.38 ± 0.08 m, countermovement jump depth = 0.49 ± 0.06 m). During the concentric phase of each jump, peak force, peak velocity, peak power, jump height, and net vertical impulse were recorded and analyzed. Net vertical impulse was divided by body mass to produce relative net vertical impulse. Increasing squat depth corresponded to a decrease in peak force and an increase in jump height and relative net vertical impulse for both static jump and countermovement jump. Across all depths, relative net vertical impulse was statistically significantly correlated to jump height in the static jump (r = .9337, p < .0001, power = 1.000) and countermovement jump (r = .925, p < .0001, power = 1.000). Across all depths, peak force was negatively correlated to jump height in the static jump (r = –0.3947, p = .0018, power = 0.8831) and countermovement jump (r = –0.4080, p = .0012, power = 0.9050). These results indicate that relative net vertical impulse can be used to assess vertical jump performance, regardless of initial squat depth, and that peak force may not be the best measure to assess vertical jump performance.
Hilde Lohne-Seiler, Monica K. Torstveit and Sigmund A. Anderssen
The aim was to determine whether strength training with machines vs. functional strength training at 80% of one-repetition maximum improves muscle strength and power among the elderly. Sixty-three subjects (69.9 ± 4.1 yr) were randomized to a high-power strength group (HPSG), a functional strength group (FSG), or a nonrandomized control group (CG). Data were collected using a force platform and linear encoder. The training dose was 2 times/wk, 3 sets × 8 reps, for 11 wk. There were no differences in effect between HPSG and FSG concerning sit-to-stand power, box-lift power, and bench-press maximum force. Leg-press maximum force improved in HPSG (19.8%) and FSG (19.7%) compared with CG (4.3%; p = .026). Bench-press power improved in HPSG (25.1%) compared with FSG (0.5%, p = .02) and CG (2%, p = .04). Except for bench-press power there were no differences in the effect of the training interventions on functional power and maximal body strength.