Many stroke survivors have residual sensorimotor deficits that impact negatively on balance and quality of life. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the impairments in motor control following stroke and the impact of those impairments on muscle activation patterns during postural control in stroke. Motor control impairments following stroke result in force production that is slow, weak and lacking in precision making it difficult to produce a fast rate of force development with sufficient magnitude to be effective for postural responses. Whether postural perturbations require feedback or feedforward responses, there is impairment to the timing, magnitude and sequencing of muscle activation following stroke. The impairment in muscle activation is dependent on the extent of the motor control impairments and strategies used by the individuals following stroke to compensate for the impairments. The central nervous system uses a variety of mechanisms to improve the muscle activation patterns needed for the recovery of postural responses following stroke.
S. Jayne Garland, Vicki L. Gray and Svetlana Knorr
Tyler J. Kirby, Jeffrey M. McBride, Tracie L. Haines and Andrea M. Dayne
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between relative net vertical impulse and jump height in a countermovement jump and static jump performed to varying squat depths. Ten college-aged males with 2 years of jumping experience participated in this investigation (age: 23.3 ± 1.5 years; height: 176.7 ± 4.5 cm; body mass: 84.4 ± 10.1 kg). Subjects performed a series of static jumps and countermovement jumps in a randomized fashion to a depth of 0.15, 0.30, 0.45, 0.60, and 0.75 m and a self-selected depth (static jump depth = 0.38 ± 0.08 m, countermovement jump depth = 0.49 ± 0.06 m). During the concentric phase of each jump, peak force, peak velocity, peak power, jump height, and net vertical impulse were recorded and analyzed. Net vertical impulse was divided by body mass to produce relative net vertical impulse. Increasing squat depth corresponded to a decrease in peak force and an increase in jump height and relative net vertical impulse for both static jump and countermovement jump. Across all depths, relative net vertical impulse was statistically significantly correlated to jump height in the static jump (r = .9337, p < .0001, power = 1.000) and countermovement jump (r = .925, p < .0001, power = 1.000). Across all depths, peak force was negatively correlated to jump height in the static jump (r = –0.3947, p = .0018, power = 0.8831) and countermovement jump (r = –0.4080, p = .0012, power = 0.9050). These results indicate that relative net vertical impulse can be used to assess vertical jump performance, regardless of initial squat depth, and that peak force may not be the best measure to assess vertical jump performance.
Hilde Lohne-Seiler, Monica K. Torstveit and Sigmund A. Anderssen
The aim was to determine whether strength training with machines vs. functional strength training at 80% of one-repetition maximum improves muscle strength and power among the elderly. Sixty-three subjects (69.9 ± 4.1 yr) were randomized to a high-power strength group (HPSG), a functional strength group (FSG), or a nonrandomized control group (CG). Data were collected using a force platform and linear encoder. The training dose was 2 times/wk, 3 sets × 8 reps, for 11 wk. There were no differences in effect between HPSG and FSG concerning sit-to-stand power, box-lift power, and bench-press maximum force. Leg-press maximum force improved in HPSG (19.8%) and FSG (19.7%) compared with CG (4.3%; p = .026). Bench-press power improved in HPSG (25.1%) compared with FSG (0.5%, p = .02) and CG (2%, p = .04). Except for bench-press power there were no differences in the effect of the training interventions on functional power and maximal body strength.
Kelsey Lucca, David Gire, Rachel Horton and Jessica A. Sommerville
key elements of cognition, affect, and motor behavior. To illustrate, imagine locking your keys inside a car. To get them out, you might draw on motor abilities and exert high levels of force in trying to pry the door open. You might recruit cognitive resources and contemplate the most strategic way
Dean Norris, David Joyce, Jason Siegler, James Clock and Ric Lovell
requiring only a force platform (portable) and a Smith machine common to most elite training facilities. The adoption of this test may also stem from the relative ease of assessment, reproducibility, nonfatiguing nature, high correlations to other dynamic explosive and strength measures, and minimal
Arturo Forner-Cordero, Virgínia H. Quadrado, Sitsofe A. Tsagbey and Bouwien C.M. Smits-Engelsman
how the errors are reduced while performing the task under these new conditions. Examples of experimental modifications of task conditions are visual distortion or virtual force fields ( Blanchette & Bouyer, 2009 ; Inui & Hatta, 2002 ; Krakauer & Mazzoni, 2011 ; Lackner & DiZio, 2005 ; Shadmehr
Bryan L. Riemann and George J. Davies
objective strength measures, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between concentric isokinetic pushing force and SSASP performance. A secondary purpose was to conduct a method comparison analysis of limb symmetry indices (LSIs; dominant to nondominant limbs) between the SSASP
Stacey L. DeJong, Rebecca L. Birkenmeier and Catherine E. Lang
In animal models, hundreds of repetitions of upper extremity (UE) task practice promote neural adaptation and functional gain. Recently, we demonstrated improved UE function following a similar intervention for people after stroke. In this secondary analysis, computerized measures of UE task performance were used to identify movement parameters that changed as function improved. Ten people with chronic poststroke hemiparesis participated in high-repetition UE task-specific training 3 times per week for 6 weeks. Before and after training, we assessed UE function with the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and evaluated motor performance using computerized motion capture during a reach-grasp-transport-release task. Movement parameters included the duration of each movement phase, trunk excursion, peak aperture, aperture path ratio, and peak grip force. Group results showed an improvement in ARAT scores (p = .003). Although each individual changed significantly on at least one movement parameter, across the group there were no changes in any movement parameter that reached or approached significance. Changes on the ARAT were not closely related to changes in movement parameters. Since aspects of motor performance that contribute to functional change vary across individuals, an individualized approach to upper extremity motion analysis appears warranted.
Edward C. Frederick, Jeremy J. Determan, Saunders N. Whittlesey and Joseph Hamill
Seven top amateur or professional skateboarders (BW = 713 N ± 83 N) performed Ollie maneuvers onto and off an elevated wooden platform (45.7 cm high). We recorded ground reaction force (GRF) data for three Ollie Up (OU) and Ollie Down (OD) trials per participant. The vertical GRF (VGRF) during the OU has a characteristic propulsive peak (M = 2.22 body weight [BW] ± 0.22) resulting from rapidly rotating the tail of the board into the ground to propel the skater and board up and forward. The anterior-posterior (A-P) GRF also shows a pronounced peak (M = 0.05 ± 0.01 BW) corresponding with this propulsive VGRF peak. The initial phase of landing in the OD shows an impact peak in VGRF rising during the first 30 to 80 ms to a mean of 4.74 ± 0.46 BW. These impact peaks are higher than expected given the relatively short drop of 45.7 cm and crouched body position. But we observed that our participants intentionally affected a firm landing to stabilize the landing position; and the Ollie off the platform raised the center of mass, also contributing to higher forces.
Nicholas Caplan and Trevor N. Gardner
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of varying the height of the foot stretcher on the mechanical effectiveness of rowing. Ten male university level rowers rowed maximally for 3 minutes 30 seconds on a modified Concept 2 rowing ergometer. Each participant completed one trial at three foot stretcher heights. Position 1 was the original Concept 2 stretcher position, with Position 2 being located 5 cm and Position 3 being 10 cm above the original position and in the same orientation. Pull force and velocity were measured, and mean power generated by the rowers was calculated for each stroke. It was shown that in all three stretcher positions, mean power per stroke decreased as a function of time during the trial, confirming the fatiguing effects of the task. Although mean power per stroke did not differ significantly between stretcher positions at the start of the trial, p = 0.082, a significant difference was observed between the original stretcher position and Positions 2 and 3 at the end of the trial, p < 0.05. The lowest decline in mean power occurred in the highest stretcher position. It is suggested that this improvement in effectiveness is due to a reduction in the active downward vertical forces applied to the foot stretchers which does not contribute to forward propulsion, and thus a reduction in energy waste during each stroke. It was hypothesized that further raising the stretchers will continue to lead to an improvement in effectiveness until the optimum stretcher height is reached, above which effectiveness will be reduced.