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Joshua Nimmins, Ben Strafford and Joseph Stone

of construction, the metallic puck experienced ∼40% less friction on the ice compared to the regulation vulcanized rubber pucks and therefore did not represent the puck specific affordances present in a game situation (e.g., friction between the puck and ice) ( Pinder, Davids, Renshaw, & Araújo, 2011

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John Strickland and Grant Bevill

other protective conditions, including unprotected (no headgear/facemask, as a “baseline”) and a hockey-style catcher’s mask. Methods The overall test assembly consisted of a Hybrid III 50th percentile male head/neck assembly mounted on a set of low-friction, linear rails. A pneumatic cannon, consisting

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Amador García-Ramos and Slobodan Jaric

avoid wrong conclusions about the reliability of fitness tests by incrementing the statistical power. Finally, it should be noted that to simplify the testing procedure, the friction force of the Smith machine barbell was not added for force computations. Therefore, although the magnitude of the F

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Emma K. Zadow, Cecilia M. Kitic, Sam S.X. Wu and James W. Fell

measured by a dynamic calibration rig (CALRIG, Flinders University, Dynamic Calibrator 34118, Adelaide, Australia) as previously described. 5 , 9 As per manufacturer requirements to overcome potential frictional losses, the CALRIG and the KICKR were operated for 30 minutes at 100 to 120 rpm and 15 minutes

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Carlo Capelli

against frictional forces times the acceleration of gravity ( g , m/s 2 ). The value of this term depends on the characteristics of the tires and of the terrain, 3 which, for M t  = 85 kg and for C rr  = 0.031 J · m −1  · kg −1 , amounts to 25.8 J/m. 4 The second term is the metabolic energy spent per

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Pierre Samozino, Jean Romain Rivière, Jérémy Rossi, Jean-Benoit Morin and Pedro Jimenez-Reyes

practical method to free athletes from body weight during a squat movement is to realize the squat horizontally, supine on a rolling device (eg, long board), and push with the feet onto a wall (Figure  1 ). 5 Even if the inertia remains equal to body mass, the resistive forces are only the rolling friction

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Marco J. Konings and Florentina J. Hettinga

, when positioning oneself closely behind an opponent, the effect of drafting could reduce air-frictional losses by 23%. 30 Moreover, skating in the beginning stages of short-track races at a position other than the leading position could provide the opportunity to better oversee your competitors. 13

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Travis J. Peterson and Jill L. McNitt-Gray

, Conshohocken, PA) was secured on top of each force plate to provide frictional characteristics. Figure 1 —Resultant RFh as a percentage of BW (mean [SD]) of 10 trials for rear and target legs during the Normal, Rup, and Tup conditions. The vertical line at t  = 0 s represents ball contact, transition occurs

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Marco J. Konings and Florentina J. Hettinga

opponent is crucial in short-track speed skating competitions and could reduce air frictional losses up to 23%. 31 , 32 Therefore, adjusting your own pacing behavior based on your competitors could provide a clear advantage in short-track speed skating. Whether this has an effect on the influence of the

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Levi Heimans, Wouter R. Dijkshoorn, Marco J.M. Hoozemans and Jos J. de Koning

accompanied changes in required power may be of interest. Therefore, minimizing required power for a team or an individual in a team can contribute to a better performance. Aerodynamic drag is caused by moving through air and can be assigned into a certain amount of friction drag and pressure drag, which