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Louise M. Burke, Asker E. Jeukendrup, Andrew M. Jones and Martin Mooses

, rather than gastric emptying, hepatic glucose extraction, muscle glucose uptake, or muscle glucose oxidation ( Jeukendrup, 2014 ). However, as reviewed by Jeukendrup ( 2017b ), sodium-dependent glucose transporter abundance and activity in animals is increased by a CHO-rich diet; furthermore, chronic

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Louise M. Burke, Linda M. Castell, Douglas J. Casa, Graeme L. Close, Ricardo J. S. Costa, Ben Desbrow, Shona L. Halson, Dana M. Lis, Anna K. Melin, Peter Peeling, Philo U. Saunders, Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo, Oliver C. Witard, Stéphane Bermon and Trent Stellingwerff

, monosaccharides, and polyols]) in susceptible individuals, the use of bicarbonate or caffeine as performance supplements, and within race intake of drinks of high CHO content and osmolality. The stomach and gut can possibly be trained to improve tolerance, gastric emptying, and absorption during exercise. Other

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Laís Monteiro Rodrigues Loureiro, Caio Eduardo Gonçalves Reis and Teresa Helena Macedo da Costa

recovery of muscle glycogen. The rate of postexercise muscle glycogen resynthesis depends on many factors, such as the quantity of muscle glycogen that was depleted, the amount of CHOs ingested, the rate of gastric emptying and intestinal glucose uptake, and the insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake and

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carbohydrate (CHO) solutions during endurance running can contribute to gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS), due to reduced gastric emptying and/or bacterial fermentation of malabsorbed CHO. A CHO-electrolyte beverage that produces a pH-sensitive hydrogel (HYD) claims to reduce GIS by increasing gastric emptying

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Margo Mountjoy, Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen, Louise Burke, Kathryn E. Ackerman, Cheri Blauwet, Naama Constantini, Constance Lebrun, Bronwen Lundy, Anna Melin, Nanna Meyer, Roberta Sherman, Adam S. Tenforde, Monica Klungland Torstveit and Richard Budgett

bradycardia, hypotension, and arrhythmias ( Spaulding-Barclay et al., 2016 ). Gastrointestinal In the severe LEA state of AN, negative health influences on the full gastrointestinal tract such as altered sphincter function, delayed gastric emptying, constipation, and increased intestinal transit time, have

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Iñigo Mujika, Shona Halson, Louise M. Burke, Gloria Balagué and Damian Farrow

availability of supplies). Some training sessions should mimic these conditions to practice the behaviors and to “train the gut” (ie, enhance rates of gastric emptying or intestinal absorption of CHO, increase tolerance/gut comfort). 138 On days when training is of lower volume and/or intensity, it may be