. This pedagogical context provides incentives to students that it is more important to “be the best” than to “do their best.” It might explain why high school students perceive that their PE teachers promote performance and competition more often than their primary school PE teachers ( Baril, Paquette
Stéphanie Girard, Jérôme St-Amand and Roch Chouinard
Suzan F. Ayers and Amelia Mays Woods
group differences in study variables based on institutional Carnegie Classification. Results Survey results related to strategies employed to recruit high school students and college/university students into PETE programs are presented separately. The perceived effectiveness and extent used results are
Bo Shen, Weidong Li, Haichun Sun and Paul Bernard Rukavina
Guided by Green-Demers, Leagult, Pelletier, and Pelletier’s (2008) assumption that amotivation (absence of motivation) is a multidimensional construct, we designed this study to investigate the influence of inadequate teacher-to-student social support on amotivation of high-school physical education students. Five hundred and sixty-six ninth graders completed questionnaires assessing psychological constructs and intentions for future physical education participation while physical education teachers rated their students’ in-class effort. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that perceived teachers’ inadequate supports in autonomy, competence, and relatedness were associated with different subtypes of amotivation. In turn, amotivation impeded in-class effort and intention for future physical education participation. The findings indicate that diminished social support from teachers may act as a significant factor resulting in students’ amotivation. The multidimensional nature of amotivation should be identified and instructionally addressed during teaching and learning.
James C. Hannon and Thomas Ratliffe
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of coed (coed) and single-gender game-play settings on the activity levels of Caucasian and African American high school physical education students. Students participated in flag football, ultimate Frisbee, and soccer units. Classes were as follows: there were two coed classes, two coed classes were split into male and female teams for game play, one class was exclusively female, and one class was exclusively male. Digi-walker pedometers were worn by students to monitor activity levels calculated as steps per minute. High school males, on average, had higher step counts than females in all settings, and Caucasian students were more active, on average, than African American students. There were no differences in activity levels for females between coed and single-gender game-play settings. There was some evidence, however, that in ultimate Frisbee and soccer units, male students in males-only classes were less physically active than were males in coed and split coed classes. Teacher interaction rates and team-sport preferences rather than the gender composition might have contributed to differences in activity levels of the classes.
Bo Shen, Robert K. Wingert, Weidong Li, Haichun Sun and Paul Bernard Rukavina
Amotivation refers to a state in which individuals cannot perceive a relationship between their behavior and that behavior’s subsequent outcome. With the belief that considering amotivation as a multidimensional construct could reflect the complexity of motivational deficits in physical education, we developed this study to validate an amotivation model. In study 1 (N = 156), an exploratory factor analysis provided preliminary support with the model comprising four dimensions: ability beliefs, effort beliefs, values placed on the task, and characteristics of the task. In study 2 (N = 499), the four-dimensional model was further corroborated through a confirmatory factor analysis. Its construct validity and predictive validity were also confirmed. Overall, the findings lend evidence to the conceptual validation of the four-dimensional structure of amotivation. Lack of motivation in physical education may result from different reasons. The multifaceted nature of amotivation in physical education must be considered and instructionally addressed during teaching and learning.
Barbara E. Bechter, James A. Dimmock, Joshua L. Howard, Peter R. Whipp and Ben Jackson
mind, and guided by SDT principles, our goal in this study was to use LPA to identify motivation profiles for high school students in PE and to examine predictors and outcomes of those profiles. Recently, Wang et al. ( 2016 ) sought to establish latent profiles among Singaporean high school students
Douglas Worthen and James K. Luiselli
Female high school athletes playing volleyball and soccer (N = 32) responded to a social validity questionnaire that inquired about their experiences with a sportfocused mindfulness training program. On average, the student-athletes rated most highly the effects of mindfulness training on emotional awareness and attention focusing, the contribution of mindfulness toward team play, the benefit of having coaches learn mindfulness skills, and the application of mindfulness to other sports. There were dissimilar ratings between the volleyball and soccer student-athletes concerning use of mindfulness when preparing for and during games. Most of the formal mindfulness practices taught during the training program were rated as being helpful to very helpful. We discuss factors influencing these findings and implications for mindfulness–sport performance research.
SeYun Park and Jennifer L. Etnier
sessions were performed within 1 to 2 weeks of each other at a self-selected time between 7 and 10 PM. This time was convenient for the students because many high school students in South Korea voluntarily participate in an intensive self-study program at school during the evening. The participants were
Jaimie McMullen, Hans van der Mars and Julie A. Jahn
The purpose of this study is to describe the experiences of physical education teacher education (PETE) majors enrolled in an internship course that provided them with authentic experiences promoting and facilitating a before-school physical activity (PA) program and to examine the associated implications for PETE programs within the Comprehensive School Physical Activity (CSPAP) framework. In this study, five PETE majors were recruited to participate. Data were collected from several sources including participant observation, interviews, systematic observation, and document analysis. The results show that preservice physical educators struggled with PA promotion as a consequence of perceptions of early programmatic success, feelings of nervousness and influences of their existing beliefs about the role of the physical educator. Therefore, when considering the role of the physical educator relative to a CSPAP, PETE programs should consider making adjustments to their curricula to include experiences that allow preservice teachers to practice skills associated with out-of-class PA promotion.
Fabiana Medeiros de Almeida Silva and Aldemir Smith Menezes
throughout public state schools, distributed in 155 teaching units, representing approximately 80% of all high school students throughout the state. To compose the research sample, teaching units were randomly selected by the number of students, distributed in municipalities of each territory. Then, classes