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Yara Fidelix, Mara C. Lofrano-Prado, Leonardo S. Fortes, James O. Hill, Ann E. Caldwell, João P. Botero and Wagner L. do Prado

for gender and baseline BMI. The procedures were performed following an intention-to-treat principle without data imputation. In addition, the effect size (ES) for each intervention was calculated as proposed by Cohen ( d ). The significance level was set at P  < .05. Statistical procedures were

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Kara L. Gavin, Julian Wolfson, Mark Pereira, Nancy Sherwood and Jennifer A. Linde

data for effect estimation and missing data from participants narrowed the available sample size considerably. To address this issue, imputation models were considered to increase precision. However, these resulted in similar, nonsignificant findings. Thus, only the complete data models were reported

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Katherine Reta Devonshire-Gill and Kevin Ian Norton

imputation for missing data. The following self-reported PA measures were derived for each respondent: (1) total PA minutes (sum of minutes walking, moderate LTPA, and vigorous LTPA weighted by a factor of 2) and (2) total sessions (sum of walking, moderate LTPA, and vigorous LTPA sessions). Based on these

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Brian M. Wood, Herman Pontzer, Jacob A. Harris, Audax Z.P. Mabulla, Marc T. Hamilton, Theodore W. Zderic, Bret A. Beheim and David A. Raichlen

, O. ( 2019 ). mitml: Tools for Multiple Imputation in Multilevel Modeling. R package version 0.3-7 . Retrieved from Handy , S.L. , Boarnet , M.G. , Ewing , R. , & Killingsworth , R.E. ( 2002 ). How the built environment affects physical activity

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Jesse C. Christensen, Caitlin J. Miller, Ryan D. Burns and Hugh S. West

patient for KOS-ADL (final score−admission score) and NPRS (admission score−final score) outcomes. All patients in the analysis completed the patient-reported outcomes at both time points; therefore, there was no concern for response bias or potential estimate errors based on statistical imputation for

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Chunxiao Li, Ngai Kiu Wong, Raymond K.W. Sum and Chung Wah Yu

through a single imputation using an expectation–maximization algorithm, χ 2 (629) =629.30, p  = .49 ( Little, 1998 ). The means, SD s, internal reliability, and zero-order correlations of the study variables were computed after cleaning the data. All these statistical analyses were performed with IBM

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Samantha F. Ehrlich, Amanda J. Casteel, Scott E. Crouter, Paul R. Hibbing, Monique M. Hedderson, Susan D. Brown, Maren Galarce, Dawn P. Coe, David R. Bassett and Assiamira Ferrara

start (calendar date) of the assessment period ( Keadle et al., 2014 ). Diaries also allow participants to report what they were doing during periods of non-wear, which can provide contextual information, which may potentially allow for imputation (i.e., of MET values for activities they reportedly

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Jana Slaght, Martin Sénéchal and Danielle R. Bouchard

-based clinical trial . JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association , 266 ( 11 ), 1535 – 1542 . PubMed doi:10.1001/jama.1991.03470110081037 10.1001/jama.1991.03470110081037 Lee , P.H. ( 2013 ). Data imputation for accelerometer-measured physical activity: the combined approach . The American

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James J. Annesi

obtained from previous research with different research goals. 19 , 21 After confirming that the 13% of missing cases met the criteria for being missing at random, 34 the expectation-maximization algorithm 35 was used for imputation within the intention-to-treat format. For analyses of score changes and

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Melinda Forthofer, Marsha Dowda, Jennifer R. O’Neill, Cheryl L. Addy, Samantha McDonald, Lauren Reid and Russell R. Pate

days of ≥8 hours of wear each day (21% of children), missing values for the remaining times were estimated by multiple imputation using PROC MI in the SAS software program (Cary, NC). 19 There were no significant differences in the sociodemographic characteristics between the participants for whom PA