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James J. Annesi

obtained from previous research with different research goals. 19 , 21 After confirming that the 13% of missing cases met the criteria for being missing at random, 34 the expectation-maximization algorithm 35 was used for imputation within the intention-to-treat format. For analyses of score changes and

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Jana Slaght, Martin Sénéchal and Danielle R. Bouchard

-based clinical trial . JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association , 266 ( 11 ), 1535 – 1542 . PubMed doi:10.1001/jama.1991.03470110081037 10.1001/jama.1991.03470110081037 Lee , P.H. ( 2013 ). Data imputation for accelerometer-measured physical activity: the combined approach . The American

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Melinda Forthofer, Marsha Dowda, Jennifer R. O’Neill, Cheryl L. Addy, Samantha McDonald, Lauren Reid and Russell R. Pate

days of ≥8 hours of wear each day (21% of children), missing values for the remaining times were estimated by multiple imputation using PROC MI in the SAS software program (Cary, NC). 19 There were no significant differences in the sociodemographic characteristics between the participants for whom PA

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Mariana Luciano de Almeida, Francine Golghetto Casemiro, Camila Tiome Baba, Diana Monteiro, Mariana Fornazieri, Natália Cerri, Daniele Frascá Martins Fernandes and Grace Angélica de Oliveira Gomes

analysis. Assuming unchanged conditions, this method considers the most recent measure of the individual prior to the final evaluation. It is common for postintervention losses to occur in follow-up studies; thus, when data are lost, intention-to-treat method acts as a method of imputation of data

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Kara L. Gavin, Julian Wolfson, Mark Pereira, Nancy Sherwood and Jennifer A. Linde

data for effect estimation and missing data from participants narrowed the available sample size considerably. To address this issue, imputation models were considered to increase precision. However, these resulted in similar, nonsignificant findings. Thus, only the complete data models were reported

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Chunxiao Li, Ngai Kiu Wong, Raymond K.W. Sum and Chung Wah Yu

through a single imputation using an expectation–maximization algorithm, χ 2 (629) =629.30, p  = .49 ( Little, 1998 ). The means, SD s, internal reliability, and zero-order correlations of the study variables were computed after cleaning the data. All these statistical analyses were performed with IBM

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Jesse C. Christensen, Caitlin J. Miller, Ryan D. Burns and Hugh S. West

patient for KOS-ADL (final score−admission score) and NPRS (admission score−final score) outcomes. All patients in the analysis completed the patient-reported outcomes at both time points; therefore, there was no concern for response bias or potential estimate errors based on statistical imputation for

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Sarah G. Sanders, Elizabeth Yakes Jimenez, Natalie H. Cole, Alena Kuhlemeier, Grace L. McCauley, M. Lee Van Horn and Alberta S. Kong

. Accelerometer files were read into R and summarized with package GGIR (version 1.5; open source software maintained by Vincent van Hees: ), using the Euclidean Norm Minus One metric and with no imputation. 15 – 17 The auto-calibration and detection of

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Brian M. Wood, Herman Pontzer, Jacob A. Harris, Audax Z.P. Mabulla, Marc T. Hamilton, Theodore W. Zderic, Bret A. Beheim and David A. Raichlen

, O. ( 2019 ). mitml: Tools for Multiple Imputation in Multilevel Modeling. R package version 0.3-7 . Retrieved from Handy , S.L. , Boarnet , M.G. , Ewing , R. , & Killingsworth , R.E. ( 2002 ). How the built environment affects physical activity

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Thiago R.S. Tenório, P. Babu Balagopal, Lars B. Andersen, Raphael M. Ritti-Dias, James O. Hill, Mara C. Lofrano-Prado and Wagner L. Prado

time interaction. The procedures were developed considering the principle of intention-to-treat without data imputation. In addition, the Cohen’s d effect size (ES) was used to analyze the statistical differences of each group from a practical point of view. To verify the relationships between the