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Matthieu P. Boisgontier, Dan Orsholits, Martina von Arx, Stefan Sieber, Matthew W. Miller, Delphine Courvoisier, Maura D. Iversen, Stéphane Cullati and Boris Cheval

studies should examine how each type of childhood adversity is related to functional independence and depressive symptoms. When comparing the strength of these specific associations, the prevalence of each adverse childhood experience should be controlled for to avoid reporting spurious associations

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Karin Hesseberg, Hege Bentzen, Anette Hylen Ranhoff, Knut Engedal and Astrid Bergland

Maintenance of physical activity and good physical fitness is important for functional independence. This study had two aims: examine the physical fitness level in older persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia, and examine the relationship between the components of physical fitness and cognitive domains in this group. The cross-sectional study included community-living older people ≥ 65 years of age with MCI or dementia. Physical fitness and cognition were assessed using the Senior Fitness Test and five cognitive tests. Most of the participants scored below the criteria for maintaining physical independence in later years. There were significant associations between the components of physical fitness and cognition, except flexibility. Declines in executive function were most related to declines in physical fitness. These factors should receive more attention in people with MCI and dementia because they risk losing independence.

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Donna L. Goodwin and Kerri Staples

The purpose of the study was to capture the meaning of segregated summer camp experiences to youths with disabilities. The experiences of nine youths with physical, sensory, or behavioral disabilities between the ages of 14 and 19 were captured using the phenomenological methods of semistructured interviews, document review, and field notes. Mothers’ perceptions were also gathered. The thematic analysis revealed three themes: not alone, independence, and a chance to discover. Camp experiences provided a reprieve from perceptions of disability isolation often felt in their home communities. The campers experienced increased self-reliance, independence, and new understandings of their physical potential. The findings are discussed within the context of identity development and therapeutic landscapes.

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Mohammad Reza Pourahmadi, Ismail Ebrahimi Takamjani, Shapour Jaberzadeh, Javad Sarrafzadeh, Mohammad Ali Sanjari, Rasool Bagheri and Morteza Taghipour

Sit-to-stand (STS) movement and its reverse, which are considered fundamental prerequisites for daily activities and functional independence, are repeated many times throughout the day. 1 , 2 Hughes et al 3 reported that STS is the most frequently performed functional activity in daily life. This

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Jean M. Williams

Identification of psychological and perceptual variables which cause one athlete to be more successful than another may enable coaches to initially better select those individuals who might ultimately have the greatest prospect for success within a given sport. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether a relationship exists between fencing ability and psychological differentiation, as measured by a test of field dependence-independence. Because differentiating the movement of one's body and analytically diagnosing the events during a bout are critical to fencing success, it was hypothesized that higher skilled, classified fencers (N = 26) would be more field independent (as measured by a rod and frame test) than less skilled, unclassified fencers (N = 20). The results were significant and in the hypothesized direction (p < .001). There were no significant differences for age, number of years fenced, and educational background. It was concluded that any assessment of fencing potential should include a rod and frame test to measure field dependence-independence.

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Mojca Doupona Topič and Jay Coakley

Sociology of sport knowledge on national identity is grounded in research that focuses primarily on long established nation-states with widely known histories. The relationship between sport and national identity in postsocialist/Soviet/colonial nations that have gained independence or sovereignty since 1990 has seldom been studied. This paper examines the role of sports in the formation of national identity in postsocialist Slovenia, a nation-state that gained independence in 1990. Our analysis focuses on the recent context in which the current but fluid relationship between sport and Slovenian national identity exists. Using Slovenia as a case study we identify seven factors that may moderate the effectiveness of sports as sites for establishing and maintaining national identity and making successful global identity claims in the twenty-first century. We conclude that these factors should be taken into account to more fully understand the sport-national identity relationship today, especially in new and developing nations.

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C. Jessie Jones, Carter Rakovski, Dana Rutledge and Angela Gutierrez

Purpose:

To compare fitness of women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) aged 50+ with performance standards associated with functional independence in late life.

Methods:

Data came from a longitudinal study tracking physical and cognitive function of 93 women with FMS and included the most recent symptoms, activity levels, and fitness assessments.

Results:

Most women performed below criterion-referenced fitness standards for all measures. Nearly 90% percent of those < 70 years scored below the standard for lower body strength. Only ~20% of respondents < 70 years old met the criteria for aerobic endurance. A third of those aged over 70 met the standard in agility and dynamic balance. Physical activity was positively associated with fitness performance, while pain and depression symptoms were negatively associated.

Discussion:

High proportions of women with FMS do not meet fitness standards recommended for maintaining physical independence in late life, indicating a risk for disability. Regular fitness assessments and targeted exercise interventions are warranted.

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Donna L. Goodwin

The purpose of this study was to describe the meaning of help in physical education as perceived by students with physical disabilities. The experiences of early, middle, and late elementary school aged students (n = 12) were captured using the phenomenological methods of individual and focus group interviews, field notes, and visual artifacts. The thematic analysis revealed that interactions were perceived as self-supporting or self-threatening. Self-supporting behaviors were instrumental, caring, or consensual in form, while self-threatening behaviors resulted in a loss of independence, concerns for self-esteem, or restricted participation. Participant responses to the helping behaviors became more complex with age. Instrumental and caring assistance emerged across all groups as did loss of independence and concerns for self-esteem. The older participants experienced restricted participation and consensual help. The implications of helping behavior on motivation and dependency states are discussed within the framework of threat to self-esteem theory.

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Robert M. Nideffer

Over the past 15 years the Test of Attentional and Interpersonal Style (TAIS) has become increasingly popular in the sport psychology area. More recently, investigators factor-analyzing the six TAIS attentional scales and the information processing scale have raised serious questions about the independence of these measures. Specifically, they have suggested that the six attentional scales measured by the TAIS can be collapsed into two scales, one reflecting scanning (BET, BIT, INFP) and one reflecting the focusing of attention (NAR, OET, OIT). All of the studies reported on can be shown to have methodological flaws and to have drawn inappropriate conclusions from their analyses. Evidence is provided in the paper demonstrating the independence of the TAIS scales. Suggestions are made for avoiding the methodological and interpretive problems that have permeated the literature.

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Lynda M. Nilges

Postmodern theory and Laban analysis were used to study gender as a nonverbal discourse in educational gymnastic sequences of male (n = 12) and female (n = 10) undergraduate students. Sequences were coded using Laban’s (1948) effort concepts (weight, time, space, and flow). For interpretive purposes, each concept was overlaid with a gender reference based on historical gender images. A chi-square test of independence of each effort dimension by gender group indicated weight, space, and flow are significantly related to gender. Males tended to use strong, direct, and bound actions, while females tended to use light, indirect, and free actions (p < .01). No significant difference in use of time was found. A chi-square test of independence of movement model by gender revealed the hypothesized male model was more likely to be used by males, while the female model was more likely to be used by females (p < .001).