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Tsuyoshi Saida, Masayuki Kawada, Daijiro Kuroki, Yuki Nakai, Takasuke Miyazaki, Ryoji Kiyama and Yasuhiro Tsuneyoshi

Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders that cause knee pain and disability in the older population ( Heidari, 2011 ). Many studies have demonstrated that patients with knee OA modify their gait pattern as a strategy to alter the load on the knee joint, decrease

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Anh-Dung Nguyen, Jeffrey B. Taylor, Taylor G. Wimbish, Jennifer L. Keith and Kevin R. Ford

observed to land with greater knee extensor moments and lower hip extensor moments when compared with men 2 – 5 and with greater frontal plane knee abduction moments. 5 – 7 Of particular concern is the increase in frontal plane knee loading, as greater external knee abduction moments have been reported

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Harsh H. Buddhadev, Daniel L. Crisafulli, David N. Suprak and Jun G. San Juan

Knee osteoarthritis (OA) affects about 30% of adults over the age of 60 years. 1 This condition is characterized by progressive degeneration of the articular cartilage in the knee joint and is accompanied by joint pain, stiffness, diminished sensorimotor function, and discomfort when performing

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Joseph B. Lesnak, Dillon T. Anderson, Brooke E. Farmer, Dimitrios Katsavelis and Terry L. Grindstaff

Exercise prescription to induce muscle strength and hypertrophy utilizes loads greater than 60% of an individual’s 1-repetition maximum (1RM). 1 Following knee injury or surgery, quadriceps weakness is a common impairment that limits physical performance and self-reported function. 2 – 4 One of

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James L. Farnsworth II, Todd Evans, Helen Binkley and Minsoo Kang

, college athlete with no injury). Several different knee-specific PROMs have been developed, such as the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), International Knee Documentation Committee subjective knee form (IKDC), Knee Outcome Survey Sports Activity Scale, Cincinnati Knee Rating System, and Lysholm

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James L. Farnsworth II, Todd Evans, Helen Binkley and Minsoo Kang

supported when the items from a PROM are relevant and logical for the outcome of interest. For example, a knee-specific PROM should only include items that measure knee-specific function. Evidence of structural validity can be supported through an examination of the relationship between examinees and their

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Tomohiro Yasuda

than in the upper limbs (18–88 y 4 ; 20–89 y 5 ). In addition, recent studies have revealed that sarcopenia is muscle specific and that greater knee extensor muscle loss is found in older adults. 6 – 8 Therefore, periodic assessment of knee extensor muscle strength and size is important for all ages

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Thomas W. Kernozek, Naghmeh Gheidi, Matthew Zellmer, Jordan Hove, Becky L. Heinert and Michael R. Torry

Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is one of the most common knee pathologies 1 , 2 in younger, more active populations, especially in females. 3 , 4 PFPS has been reported after prolonged activities such as running, ascending and descending stairs, squatting, and sitting in knee flexion, 1 , 5

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Kai-Yu Ho, Brenda Benson Deaver, Tyrel Nelson and Catherine Turner

Single-leg landing, single-leg hopping, and cutting tests have been widely used in evaluating knee function after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). 1 , 2 It has also been found that females with ACLR showed greater knee valgus, 2 thereby predisposing them to increased risk of ACL

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Michelle Boling, Darin Padua, J. Troy Blackburn, Meredith Petschauer and Christopher Hirth


Clinicians commonly attempt to facilitate vastus medialis oblique (VMO) activity by instructing patients to squeeze a ball between their knees during squatting exercises.


To determine whether VMO activation amplitude and the VMO to vastus lateralis (VL) activation ratio (VMO:VL) were altered when performing active hip adduction during a dynamic squat exercise.


Single test session.


Fifteen healthy subjects, with no history of knee pain, volunteered for this study.


Surface EMG of the VMO, VL, and hip adductor (ADD) muscles were recorded while subjects performed 10 consecutive squats against their body weight through a range of 0° to 90° of knee flexion. Subjects performed the squat exercises during two different conditions: (1) active hip adduction and (2) no hip adduction.

Main Outcome Measures:

Average VMO EMG amplitude and VMO:VL ratio were determined during the knee flexion (0° to 90°) and knee extension (90° to 0°) phases of the squat exercise.


Active hip adduction did not significantly change VMO amplitude or VMO:VL ratio during the knee flexion or knee extension phases of the dynamic squat exercise.


Based on these results, we conclude that VMO amplitude and the VMO: VL ratio are not influenced by performing active hip adduction during a dynamic squat exercise in healthy subjects.