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Lee Smith, Brendon Stubbs, L. Hu, Nicola Veronese, Davy Vancampfort, Genevieve Williams, Domenico Vicinanza, Sarah E. Jackson, Li Ying, Guillermo F. López-Sánchez and Lin Yang

is total white blood cell (WBC) count. A low WBC count (leukopenia) is a decrease in disease-fighting cells (leukocytes) in the blood. WBC count has been shown to have an inverse association with overall physical activity and to be independently associated with noncommunicable diseases, such as

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Giovanni Mario Pes, Maria Pina Dore, Alessandra Errigo and Michel Poulain

, 1518 – 1524 . PubMed doi:10.1093/gerona/glt054 10.1093/gerona/glt054 Cherkas , L.F. , Hunkin , J.L. , Kato , B.S. , Richards , J.B. , Gardner , J.P. , Surdulescu , G.L. , … Aviv , A. ( 2008 ). The association between physical activity in leisure time and leukocyte telomere length

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Dan M. Cooper

signaling by exercise is not surprising; even brief bouts of sufficiently intense PA lead to a metabolic acidosis, an outpouring of catecholamines, and a profound perturbation of cellular homeostasis ( 28 , 71 ). The initial acute increase in circulating leukocytes and cytokines such as interleukin-6 is

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Miguel A. Sanchez-Lastra, Vicente de Dios Álvarez and Carlos Ayán Pérez

combined exercise intervention achieved a significant positive change in the CD4 lymphocyte count, whereas hemoglobin, leukocyte, and platelet count did not show significant changes. Substance Abuse Only Pérez-Moreno et al 21 reported information about the effects of the intervention on substance abuse

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Iñigo Mujika

(pg) 28.8 28.6 Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (g/dl) 34.1 33.1 Red cell distribution width (%) 12.8 13.2 Leukocytes (10 9 /L) 4.85 5.74 Platelets (10 9 /L) 199 214 Serum iron (µg/dl) 89 48 Transferrin (mg/dl) 225 218 Saturation index (%) 32.16 17.9 Ferritin (ng/ml) 29 41 Glucose (mg/dl) 88

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Tom Clifford, Will Abbott, Susan Y. Kwiecien, Glyn Howatson and Malachy P. McHugh

, Benestad HB , et al . Time course of leukocyte accumulation in human muscle after eccentric exercise . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2010 ; 42 ( 1 ): 75 – 85 . PubMed doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181ac7adb 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181ac7adb 20010127 26. Nikolaidis MG , Jamurtas AZ , Paschalis V , Fatouros IG

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Nenad Ponorac, Mira Popović, Dea Karaba-Jakovljević, Zorislava Bajić, Aaron Scanlan, Emilija Stojanović and Dragan Radovanović

exercise or inflammation ( Ahluwalia, 1998 ). To negate this factor, normal C-reactive protein and leukocytes were used to exclude athletes with elevated serum ferritin caused by acute-phase reactions ( Sandström et al., 2012 ). However, future studies are warranted to examine other markers of iron status

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Will Abbott, Callum Brashill, Adam Brett and Tom Clifford

 al . Time course of leukocyte accumulation in human muscle after eccentric exercise . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2010 ; 42 ( 1 ): 75 – 85 . PubMed ID: 20010127 doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181ac7adb 20010127 6. Pizza FX , Peterson JM , Baas JH , Koh TJ . Neutrophils contribute to muscle injury and

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Dariush Sheikholeslami-Vatani, Slahadin Ahmadi and Hassan Faraji

.-S. , Sedlock , D.A. , Navalta , J.W. , Lee , M.-G. , & Kim , S.-H. ( 2011 ). Leukocyte apoptosis and pro-/anti-apoptotic proteins following downhill running . European Journal of Applied Physiology, 111 , 2349 – 2357 . PubMed ID: 21424274 doi:10.1007/s00421-011-1907-2 10.1007/s00421

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Mads S. Larsen, Dagmar Clausen, Astrid Ank Jørgensen, Ulla R. Mikkelsen and Mette Hansen

Witard , O.C. , Turner , J.E. , Jackman , S.R. , Kies , A.K. , Jeukendrup , A.E. , Bosch , J.A. , & Tipton , K.D. ( 2014 ). High dietary protein restores overreaching induced impairments in leukocyte trafficking and reduces the incidence of upper respiratory tract infection in elite