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Andreas M. Kasper, Ben Crighton, Carl Langan-Evans, Philip Riley, Asheesh Sharma, Graeme L. Close and James P. Morton

), resting metabolic rate, peak oxygen uptake, and blood clinical chemistry to assess endocrine status, lipid profiles, hydration, and kidney function. Athlete Overview A professional male MMA athlete (age: 22 years; body mass: 80.2 kg; and height 1.80 m) volunteered to take part after providing informed

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James E. Peterman, Kalee L. Morris, Rodger Kram and William C. Byrnes

result in improvements in aerobic fitness, blood lipid profile, blood glucose following an OGTT, blood pressure, and body composition. Methods This was a pre/post study design involving 2 groups allocated by simple randomization: an intervention group and a delayed intervention group. The intervention

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Victor Silveira Coswig, Bianca Miarka, Daniel Alvarez Pires, Levy Mendes da Silva, Charles Bartel and Fabrício Boscolo Del Vecchio

.8, p  < .001) and absolute ingestion (in grams) of carbohydrates (χ 2  = 14.3, p  = .003), proteins (χ 2  = 17.2, p  = .001), and lipids (χ 2  = 17.0, p  = .001). For these variables, post hoc analysis indicated higher values in the WRG period, with large effects for winners ( Z  = 2.5, p  = .01

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Samuel G. Wittekind, Nicholas M. Edwards, Philip R. Khoury, Connie E. McCoy, Lawrence M. Dolan, Thomas R. Kimball and Elaine M. Urbina

-o-meter electronic scale (Sunbeam Products Inc, Boca Raton, FL). BMI was calculated as kilograms per meters squared. The mean of 3 measures of noninvasive brachial artery BP taken with mercury sphygmomanometry and careful attention to correct cuff size was used. 13 Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, lipids

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Kimberley Morrison, Rebecca A. Braham, Brian Dawson and Kym Guelfi

The effects of 8 wk of soft-sand (n = 19) and firm-surface walking (n = 19) on blood lipids, submaximal fitness (8-min walk at 4.5 km/hr), and leg strength in elderly (60+ yr), sedentary women were studied. Significant main time effects (p < .005) were found for blood lipids. The surface interaction effect for high-density lipoprotein approached significance (p = .052), with a tendency for higher levels in the sand group postintervention (p = .06). Neither group reported significant differences across time for submaximal oxygen consumption (p = .223), but a greater percentage reduction in heart-rate response to the 8-min walk was reported in the sand group (p = .016). Knee strength did not change in either group, whereas hip strength significantly improved in both groups (p = .0001), with larger effect sizes reported in the sand group. Overall, both groups showed improvements in blood lipids, fitness, and strength, with strength changes being slightly higher in the sand-walking group.

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Mitchell M. Kanter

Free radicals have been implicated in the development of diverse diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and cataracts, and recent epidemic-logical data suggest an inverse relationship between antioxidant intake and cardiovascular disease risk. Data also suggest that antioxidants may delay aging, Research has indicated that free radical production and subsequent lipid peroxidation are normal sequelae to the rise in oxygen consumption with exercise. Consequently, antioxidant supplementation may detoxify the peroxides produced during exercise and diminish muscle damage and soreness. Vitamin E, beta carotene, and vitamin C have shown promise as protective antioxidants. Other ingestible products with antioxidant properties include selenium and coenzyme Q10. The role (if any) that free radicals play in the development of exercise-induced tissue damage, or the protective role that antioxidants may play, remains to be elucidated. Current methods used to assess exercise-induced lipid peroxidation are not extremely specific or sensitive; research that utilizes more sophisticated methodologies should help to answer many questions regarding dietary antioxidants.

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Anthony C. Hackney, Mary Ann McCracken-Compton and Barbara Ainsworth

This study examined substrate metabolism responses of eumenorrheic women to different intensities of submaximai exercise at the midfollicular (MF) and the midluteal (ML) phases of the menstrual cycle. Nine women performed a 30-min treadmill run in which the exercise intensity was made more difficult every 10 min (35%, 60%, and 75%). Carbohydrate (CHO) utilization and oxidation rates for the 35% and 60% intensities during the ML session were significantly lower than during the comparable intensities in the MF. Conversely, lipid utilization and oxidation were significantly greater during the 35% and 60% ML session than in the MF session. At 75%, however, the ML and MF CHO-lipid utilization and oxidation rates were not significantly different from one another. Thus, the phase of the menstrual cycle in eumenorrheic women does influence metabolic substrate usage during low- to moderate-intensity submaximai exercise, probably due to changes in the endogenous levels of the female sex hormones.

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Andrew W. Subudhi, Scott L. Davis, Ronald W. Kipp and E. Wayne Askew

The goal of this field study was to assess antioxidant status and markers of oxidative damage in elite alpine ski racers during routine training. Subjects included 12 members of the U.S. Men’s Alpine Ski Team attending a 10-day summer training camp. Blood draws were collected at rest and after exercise: (a) prior to training, (b) following 2 days of dry land training, and (c) after 4 days of on-snow skiing. Seven measures of antioxidant status were determined using colorimetric and HPLC methods (Trolox “equivalent antioxidant capacity, uric acid, α-tocopherol, β-tocopherol, total glutathione, cytosolic glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase). Oxidative stress was assessed using 2 markers of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde and lipid hydroperoxides) and 2 markers of protein oxidation (carbonylated total proteins and carbonylated hemoglobin). The results of this study suggest that antioxidant status of elite alpine skiers may decline over a period of intense training. However, elevations in markers of oxidative stress were not evident.

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Yves Eberhard, Jacqueline Eterradossi and Bettina Debû

The effects of exercise and of a physical conditioning program on 11 subjects (7 males, 4 females, aged 15 to 20) with Down’s syndrome (DS) were analyzed. Metabolic responses were evaluated before and after two ergometric cycle exercise tests: an incremental exercise to symptom limited VO2 max. and an endurance test performed at 60% of maximal aerobic power. Plasma substrates, electrolytes, catecholamines, lipoprotein lipid profiles, and superoxide dismutase were assayed immediately before and after these tests. The results indicated (a) a low blood lactate level for peak exercise, (b) slow free fatty acid mobilization at the start of exercise, (c) a low level of cholesterol HDL and a high level of pre-beta VLDL at rest, (d) adjustment to nearly normal lipid profiles with endurance activity, and (e) differences between before and after training for superoxide dismutase levels in subjects with DS. These results suggest that endurance training could have long-term effects on the pathophysiological consequences of DS.

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Georges Jabbour, Melanie Henderson, Angelo Tremblay and Marie Eve Mathieu

Objective:

Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) improves aerobic fitness in children, which is usually assessed by maximal oxygen consumption. However, other indices of aerobic fitness have been understudied.

Methods:

To compare net oxygen (VO2net), net energy consumption (Enet), net mechanical efficiency (MEnet), and lipid oxidation rate in active and inactive children across body weight statuses.

Design:

The sample included normal-weight, overweight, and obese children of whom 44 are active (≥30 min of MVPA/d) and 41 are inactive (<30 min of MVPA/d). VO2net, Enet, MEnet and lipid oxidation rate were determined during an incremental maximal cycling test.

Results:

Active obese participants had significantly lower values of VO2net and Enet and higher MEnet than inactive obese participants at all load stages. In addition, active obese participants showed a significantly higher lipid oxidation rate compared with inactive obese and active overweight and normal-weight participants. VO2net, Enet, and MEnet were similar across active children, regardless of body weight status.

Conclusion:

Thirty minutes or more of MVPA per day is associated with a potentiation of aerobic fitness indicators in obese prepubertal children. Moreover, the indices of aerobic fitness of inactive obese children are significantly different from those of active obese and nonobese ones.