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Ben Desbrow, Nicholas A. Burd, Mark Tarnopolsky, Daniel R. Moore and Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale

in growing tissues) for adolescent populations with different levels of physical activity and/or training have been published ( Torun, 2005 ). It appears that low energy availability (EA) in adolescent athletes undertaking heavy training is common ( Muia et al., 2016 ). This may lead to a number of

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Daniel P. Joaquim, Claudia R. Juzwiak and Ciro Winckler

requirement and supply found in many of these studies can lead to low energy availability with consequences to athletes’ performance and health ( da Silva Gomes et al., 2005 , 2006 ; Eskici & Ersoy, 2016 ; Goosey-Tolfrey & Crosland, 2010 ; Mountjoy et al., 2014 ). However, no study with para athletes

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bike-pack trip through South America. Conclusions.— Unexpected fractures in endurance athletes should prompt evaluation for underlying medical conditions. While low energy availability, secondary amenorrhea, and low bone density are common in endurance athletes, rare medical conditions should also be

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Mikkel Oxfeldt, Line B. Dalgaard, Astrid A. Jørgensen and Mette Hansen

amenorrheic endurance athletes compared with the nonamenorrheic endurance athletes. Together with low energy availability and loss of bone mass density, MD is part of the female athlete triad inducing long-term health consequences. 6 , 23 MD seems closely linked to low energy availability, which may affect

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Reid J. Reale, Timothy J. Roberts, Khalil A. Lee, Justina L. Bonsignore and Melissa L. Anderson

, it is clear that previous models should not be used to predict RMR and subsequently identify a suppressed RMR (as a surrogate measure of low energy availability) in adolescent athletes, as these precious equations are clearly inappropriate. Previously Published Models Performance Seven of the eight

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Monica Klungland Torstveit, Ida Fahrenholtz, Thomas B. Stenqvist, Øystein Sylta and Anna Melin

.J. , & Schaenzer , W. ( 2016 ). Low energy availability in exercising men is associated with reduced leptin and insulin but not with changes in other metabolic hormones . Journal of Sports Sciences, 34 ( 20 ), 1921 – 1929 . doi:10.1080/02640414.2016.1142109 10.1080/02640414.2016.1142109 Loucks , A

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Keren Susan Cherian, Ashok Sainoji, Balakrishna Nagalla and Venkata Ramana Yagnambhatt

. Sport Nutrition: An Introduction to Energy Production and Performance . Champaign, IL : Human Kinetics ; 2010 . 34. Koehler K , Hoerner NR , Gibbs JC , et al . Low energy availability in exercising men is associated with reduced leptin and insulin but not with changes in other metabolic

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Amy J. Hector and Stuart M. Phillips

calories too severely, particularly below 30 kcal/kg fat-free mass, which would be roughly equivalent to resting metabolic rate for most people ( Loucks et al., 2011 ). For example, in natural male body builders, prolonged low energy availability can result in loss of LBM, hormonal imbalances

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Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo and Majke Jorgensen

Journal of Physiology, 52 ( 2 ), 199 – 205 . PubMed ID: 12139778 doi:10.2170/jjphysiol.52.199 10.2170/jjphysiol.52.199 Sygo , J. , Coates , A.M. , Sesbreno , E. , Mountjoy , M.L. , & Burr , J.F. ( 2018 ). Prevalence of Indicators of Low Energy Availability in Elite Female Sprinters

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Jennifer Sygo, Alicia Kendig Glass, Sophie C. Killer and Trent Stellingwerff

. This periodized approach to fueling can optimize quickness and support maximum power generation with a lower BM; however, athletes should be advised that long-term focus on achievement or maintenance of low BM can result in low-energy availability (LEA), leading to compromised health and an increased