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R. Pla, Y. Le Meur, A. Aubry, J.F. Toussaint and P. Hellard

immediately using backward extrapolation and a K4b2 gas analyzer (Cosmed, Rome, Italy) connected to a face mask (Hans Rudolph, Inc, Shawnee, KS). As soon as the swimmer’s head was out of the water, the mask was put on the swimmer for 30 seconds. The first 20 seconds were used for the analysis to determine V

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David P. Looney, Mark J. Buller, Andrei V. Gribok, Jayme L. Leger, Adam W. Potter, William V. Rumpler, William J. Tharion, Alexander P. Welles, Karl E. Friedl and Reed W. Hoyt

). Masking effects such as the sleep-wake cycle and dietary intake ( Rietveld, Minors, & Waterhouse, 1993 ) were not controlled during data collection. However, these issues will likely arise during circadian rhythm monitoring in free-living conditions. Ultimately, further research is required to validate

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Whitney A. Welch, Scott J. Strath, Michael Brondino, Renee Walker and Ann M. Swartz

(400 g) device that secures onto the individual’s chest, while the small battery (120 × 20 × 80 mm) is placed on the upper back. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are sampled from the face mask covering the participant’s nose and mouth, and a turbine attached to the face mask measured ventilation. Breath

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Mirko Brandes, Berit Steenbock and Norman Wirsik

attached to the children using a pediatric harness. In very lean and small children, adhesive tape was used to help adjust the fit of the harness so that the system would not interfere with the activities. A face mask was secured over the child’s nose and mouth using an adjustable nylon harness. A

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Bastiaan Breine, Philippe Malcolm, Veerle Segers, Joeri Gerlo, Rud Derie, Todd Pataky, Edward C. Frederick and Dirk De Clercq

the shoe-surface pressures. As such, the sum of recorded pressures multiplied by active sensor area should be equivalent to the total vertical GRF measured with the AMTI force plate. In the Footscan 7 software we applied a 4-zone mask: (a) lateral and (b) medial rearfoot (splitting the posterior 1

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Nikolaus A. Dean

diagnosis, I found myself in a constant battle of denial, depression, anxiety, and was forced to put on a “mask” during my interactions. As Goffman ( 1959 ) states, this “mask represents the conception we have formed of ourselves—the role we are striving to live up to—this mask is our truer self, the self

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Rachel Massie, James Smallcombe and Keith Tolfrey

Actiheart. Participants wore a face mask (Hans Rudolph, Shawnee, KS), and expired air was analyzed continuously using an online system that measures breath-by-breath ventilation, expired oxygen, and expired carbon dioxide (K4b 2 ; COSMED, Rome, Italy). The criteria used to define the attainment of peak V

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Zachary C. Pope, Nan Zeng, Xianxiong Li, Wenfeng Liu and Zan Gao

were collected via indirect calorimetry with a Cortex Metalyzer II metabolic cart (Cortex; Germany). Briefly, the exercise tests were performed on a Pulsar treadmill (H/P/Cosmos; Willich, Germany), with participants wearing a mask attached to the metabolic cart. The metabolic cart conducted indirect

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Louise M. Burke and Peter Peeling

specific scenarios. Many available studies suffer from limitations in methodology which may mask a true interpretation of the results. Research that is poorly conducted or interpreted may result in type 1 (incorrect attribution of a performance change) or type II (failure to detect a true performance

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Daisuke Kume, Akira Iguchi and Hiroshi Endoh

the boys might mask deoxygenation due to the Bohr effect, resulting in an inhibition of the accelerated decrease in Δ[Oxy-Hb − Deoxy-Hb]. The lower blood lactate concentration of children ( 30 , 31 ), caused by their lower glycolytic enzyme capacity ( 10 , 16 ), should be susceptible to the blood flow