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Louise M. Burke and Peter Peeling

specific scenarios. Many available studies suffer from limitations in methodology which may mask a true interpretation of the results. Research that is poorly conducted or interpreted may result in type 1 (incorrect attribution of a performance change) or type II (failure to detect a true performance

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Rachel Massie, James Smallcombe and Keith Tolfrey

Actiheart. Participants wore a face mask (Hans Rudolph, Shawnee, KS), and expired air was analyzed continuously using an online system that measures breath-by-breath ventilation, expired oxygen, and expired carbon dioxide (K4b 2 ; COSMED, Rome, Italy). The criteria used to define the attainment of peak V

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Zachary C. Pope, Nan Zeng, Xianxiong Li, Wenfeng Liu and Zan Gao

were collected via indirect calorimetry with a Cortex Metalyzer II metabolic cart (Cortex; Germany). Briefly, the exercise tests were performed on a Pulsar treadmill (H/P/Cosmos; Willich, Germany), with participants wearing a mask attached to the metabolic cart. The metabolic cart conducted indirect

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Dennis van Erck, Eric J. Wenker, Koen Levels, Carl Foster, Jos J. de Koning and Dionne A. Noordhof

test, corresponding to the manufacturer’s instructions. The mask that was used to collect respiratory data was also used to supply air to the participants. The mask was connected to a bag of air (hypoxic or normoxic), which contained air produced by the b-CAT High-Altitude (b-CAT BV, Tiel, the

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Matthew I. Black, Joseph C. Handsaker, Sam J. Allen, Stephanie E. Forrester and Jonathan P. Folland

that they could not continue. After a period of rest (∼5 min), the subjects were fitted in a low-dead-space mask, breathed through an impeller turbine assembly (Jaeger Triple V, Jaeger GmbH, Hoechberg, Germany), and repeated the treadmill familiarization. After the familiarization session, the subjects

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David S. Haydon, Ross A. Pinder, Paul N. Grimshaw and William S.P. Robertson

warranted additional analysis and were deemed important given the study group and clear masking of potentially important findings based on the typically larger research groupings previously used. Results Performance A 1-way ANOVA revealed significant differences for sprint time between classification groups

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David M. Shaw, Fabrice Merien, Andrea Braakhuis, Daniel Plews, Paul Laursen and Deborah K. Dulson

., Livingston, MT). Participants were not informed of their trial allocation. However, due to the difficulty masking the bitter taste of BD, achieving successful blinding was deemed unlikely. For the day prior to each experimental trial, participants were prescribed a diet consisting of 6 g/kg of carbohydrate

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Nicholas J. Hanson, Sarah C. Martinez, Erik N. Byl, Rachel M. Maceri and Michael G. Miller

mask the taste (Crush Orange water enhancer; Jel Sert Co, Chicago, IL); the placebo condition consisted of only the flavored drink. Pilot testing showed that this was able to sufficiently mask the flavor of the caffeine. They were asked to consume the flavored drink upon arrival to the laboratory, and

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Pedro L. Valenzuela, Guillermo Sánchez-Martínez, Elaia Torrontegi, Javier Vázquez-Carrión, Manuela González, Zigor Montalvo and Grégoire P. Millet

oxygen [FiO 2 ] = 21%). During RSH, athletes wore a mask connected to a portable hypoxia generator (Hypoxico Inc, New York, NY) that reduced FiO 2 to 14% (which corresponds to an altitude of approximately 3400 m) during the whole session, including rest periods. Previous authors have used a similar

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Kyle S. Beyer, Jeffrey R. Stout, Michael J. Redd, Kayla M. Baker, Haley C. Bergstrom, Jay R. Hoffman and David H. Fukuda

consumption ( V ˙ O 2 peak ) during the graded exercise test. Metabolic Measurements To assess V ˙ O 2 , V ˙ CO 2 , and V ˙ E during the ramp exercise protocol, a flexible mask was fitted over each participant’s mouth and nose to collect expired air. After setup, each mask was tested, via forcible exhale