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R. Pla, Y. Le Meur, A. Aubry, J.F. Toussaint and P. Hellard

immediately using backward extrapolation and a K4b2 gas analyzer (Cosmed, Rome, Italy) connected to a face mask (Hans Rudolph, Inc, Shawnee, KS). As soon as the swimmer’s head was out of the water, the mask was put on the swimmer for 30 seconds. The first 20 seconds were used for the analysis to determine V

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Whitney A. Welch, Scott J. Strath, Michael Brondino, Renee Walker and Ann M. Swartz

(400 g) device that secures onto the individual’s chest, while the small battery (120 × 20 × 80 mm) is placed on the upper back. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are sampled from the face mask covering the participant’s nose and mouth, and a turbine attached to the face mask measured ventilation. Breath

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Sjors Groot, Lars H.J. van de Westelaken, Dionne A. Noordhof, Koen Levels and Jos J. de Koning

checked during every calibration and accepted if between 50 and 200 ms. Dead space of the mask depended on the size of the mask (small: 50 mL; medium: 60 mL). The volume transducer was calibrated using a 3-L volume syringe (COSMED srl). Heart rate was measured during the test with a heart rate monitor

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Bastiaan Breine, Philippe Malcolm, Veerle Segers, Joeri Gerlo, Rud Derie, Todd Pataky, Edward C. Frederick and Dirk De Clercq

the shoe-surface pressures. As such, the sum of recorded pressures multiplied by active sensor area should be equivalent to the total vertical GRF measured with the AMTI force plate. In the Footscan 7 software we applied a 4-zone mask: (a) lateral and (b) medial rearfoot (splitting the posterior 1

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Mirko Brandes, Berit Steenbock and Norman Wirsik

attached to the children using a pediatric harness. In very lean and small children, adhesive tape was used to help adjust the fit of the harness so that the system would not interfere with the activities. A face mask was secured over the child’s nose and mouth using an adjustable nylon harness. A

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Nikolaus A. Dean

diagnosis, I found myself in a constant battle of denial, depression, anxiety, and was forced to put on a “mask” during my interactions. As Goffman ( 1959 ) states, this “mask represents the conception we have formed of ourselves—the role we are striving to live up to—this mask is our truer self, the self

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Zachary C. Pope, Nan Zeng, Xianxiong Li, Wenfeng Liu and Zan Gao

were collected via indirect calorimetry with a Cortex Metalyzer II metabolic cart (Cortex; Germany). Briefly, the exercise tests were performed on a Pulsar treadmill (H/P/Cosmos; Willich, Germany), with participants wearing a mask attached to the metabolic cart. The metabolic cart conducted indirect

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Rachel Massie, James Smallcombe and Keith Tolfrey

Actiheart. Participants wore a face mask (Hans Rudolph, Shawnee, KS), and expired air was analyzed continuously using an online system that measures breath-by-breath ventilation, expired oxygen, and expired carbon dioxide (K4b 2 ; COSMED, Rome, Italy). The criteria used to define the attainment of peak V

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Louise M. Burke and Peter Peeling

specific scenarios. Many available studies suffer from limitations in methodology which may mask a true interpretation of the results. Research that is poorly conducted or interpreted may result in type 1 (incorrect attribution of a performance change) or type II (failure to detect a true performance

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Kyle S. Beyer, Jeffrey R. Stout, Michael J. Redd, Kayla M. Baker, Haley C. Bergstrom, Jay R. Hoffman and David H. Fukuda

consumption ( V ˙ O 2 peak ) during the graded exercise test. Metabolic Measurements To assess V ˙ O 2 , V ˙ CO 2 , and V ˙ E during the ramp exercise protocol, a flexible mask was fitted over each participant’s mouth and nose to collect expired air. After setup, each mask was tested, via forcible exhale