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Kathryn E. Shea

By Peter Humphreys and Seamus Simpson. Published 2018 by Edward Elgar , Northampton, MA. $130.00 . 263 pp. ISBN: 9781781008980 Understanding the contemporary salient issues of media convergence is important for all sport organizations to successfully maneuver in the global media convergence

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Sada Reed and Kathleen A. Hansen

Using gatekeeping theory as a conceptual framework, this study examines social media’s influence on American sports journalists’ perception of gatekeeping, particularly sports journalists who cover elite sports. Seventy-seven print sports journalists covering professional sports were asked if their definition of gatekeeper has changed since they began using social media for news-gathering purposes. Thirty-six participants did not think their definition of gatekeeper had changed. The 26 respondents who did think it had changed were asked to explain how. Responses were coded into 1 of the 5 categories in Shoemaker and Reese’s Hierarchy of Influences model—individual, media routines, organization, extramedia, and ideological. Results suggest that for practitioners who do believe there has been a change, they see social media as changing their day-in, day-out job routines, as opposed to extramedia influences.

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Jue Hou, Xiaoxu Yang and Elliot Panek

competitors and leagues all closely resemble those of traditional sports. Unlike the established traditional-sport industry, the young industry of e-sport is expected to be unfamiliar to the majority of the public, leaving the mass media to fill this information gap. In this regard, the mass media’s framing

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Gashaw Abeza, Norm O’Reilly and Ian Reid

Relationship marketing (RM) is about retaining customers through the achievement of long-term mutual satisfaction by businesses and their customers. Sport organizations, to retain customers by establishing, maintaining, and enhancing relationships, need to communicate and engage in dialogue with their customers. To achieve this on an ongoing basis, sport organizations need to employ effective communication platforms. In this regard, social media (SM) is becoming an ideal tool for a continuing 2-way dialogue. However, the effects of SM, primarily in terms of addressing RM goals, are not yet well understood. This study explores the opportunities and challenges facing managers in sport organizations in using SM in an RM strategy. Eight case studies were undertaken on organizations that put on running events. The article presents the findings on the use, opportunities, and challenges of SM and recommendations encouraging continued investigation.

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Joowon Lee, Baojiang Chen, Harold W. Kohl III, Carolyn E. Barlow, Chong Do Lee, Nina B. Radford, Laura F. DeFina and Kelley P. Gabriel

clinical outcomes, including morbid and mortal events. In an effort to better understand the impact of MSA on cardiovascular health, the goal of this study was to examine the association of MSA with a preclinical measure of atherosclerosis, carotid intima–media thickness (CIMT). As a measure of the

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Brian Moritz

This study examined contemporary daily sports journalism through the lenses of media sociology and new institutional theory. In-depth interviews with 25 sports journalists (reporters and editors) identified the institutionalized norms, values, practices, and routines of American sports journalism; demonstrated how that institutionalization affects story selection; and showed how the profession is changing due to digital and social media. The interviews show that although traditional sports journalism is highly institutionalized, digital sports journalism is far less so. Traditional sports journalism is still centered around a story, and digital sports journalism follows Robinson’s journalism-as-process model. The journalists interviewed are expected to perform acts of both traditional and digital journalism during the same workday, which leads to tension in how they do their jobs.

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Charlie Song, Jianhua Zhang and Stu Ryan

This study assessed the perceptions and attitudes of university students in Beijing toward the international media’s coverage of the 2008 Olympics and of China during the Games. A total of 1,000 students were randomly surveyed immediately after the Games’ Closing Ceremony. Descriptive analysis of the data indicated that most survey respondents were pleased with the international media’s coverage of the Olympics and of China in general. One-way multivariate analysis of variance and Scheffé’s post hoc test results revealed that the respondents’ attitudes toward the international media’s coverage differed significantly among categories of the classified variables of age, class, academic major, and political preference. The study also found that a large portion of the respondents would be pleased to see the Chinese government permanently adopt a national policy to permit foreign media to report unrestrictedly in China after the Olympics, as the policy was implemented during the Olympics.

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Dae Hee Kwak, Yu Kyoum Kim and Matthew H. Zimmerman

Despite the growing interest in social media and user-generated content, both academics and practitioners are struggling to understand the value and consequences of social media (e.g., blogs). This study employed a 2 (media source: mainstream/ social media) × 2 (message valence: positive/negative) × 2 (team identification: high/low) between-subjects design on source credibility and attitude toward an article. Positive and negative messages about the university’s varsity men’s basketball team were presented in either the mainstream media (sport magazine) or a user-generated format (blog). The results revealed that message valence had a significant main impact on triggering biased source evaluation and attitude toward the message. In turn, media source had a significant main effect on source expertise, but no main effects were found for trustworthiness and attitude. Team identification moderated the effect of media source on cognitive processing, suggesting that highly identified fans evaluated mainstream content more favorably, whereas less identified fans preferred user-generated content.

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Adrian Bauman and Josephine Chau

Background:

This paper reviewed a) mass media campaigns and b) ‘new media’ interventions to promote physical activity. They are different kinds of interventions, with campaigns being mass-reach communications efforts to increase population awareness of physical activity. ‘New media’ interventions assess the impact of web-based, internet, other ’new media’ and e-mail-delivered interventions to increase physical activity.

Methods:

Previous reviews of mass media campaigns and ‘new media’ interventions were assessed, and more recent peer-reviewed publications identified using routine electronic databases. For each area, a framework for interventions was described, and evidence for the effectiveness of these interventions, the main outcomes of interest, and methodological strengths and weaknesses were identified.

Key recommendations:

For mass media campaigns, key recommendations were to use consistent and well-branded messages, and for campaigns to be integrated across local, State and national levels, with sufficient resources to purchase sufficient media. Mass media campaigns should be subject to rigorous formative, process and impact evaluation. For ‘new media’ interventions, there is clear evidence of effectiveness, but efforts should be made to increase the reach and generalizability of these interventions. They should be provided as a low cost component of integrated communitywide physical activity programs.

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Janet S. Fink, John F. Borland and Sarah K. Fields

Critical analysis of media coverage is vital as scholars have long suggested that what the media choose to cover and how they choose to cover it have incredible influence on audience perceptions. Therefore, how the media cover negative incidents and sexist comments relative to women in sport can illuminate the manner in which they reinforce or challenge the hegemonic nature of sport. This study critically examined the media’s reaction to 5 specific sexist incidents in sport from 2004 to 2007 and the reactions of the perpetrators themselves and their defenders as represented in the media. Articles (N = 278) covering the incidents from 5 large newspapers representing different areas of the United States were analyzed. Results indicated that there were 4 strategies of apologia (i.e., denial, bolstering, transcendence, and differentiation), and 2 other themes, silence and marginalized sexism, emerged. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.